This classic among atlases of anatomy is derived from Eduard Pernkopf's Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. Eduard Pernkopf; Werner Platzer. Translation of: Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menschen. Atlas der topographischen und angewandten Anatomie des Menchen. “Pernkopf anatomy: Atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy. Vol. I: Head and neck” by Werner Platzer, translated by Harry Monsen. Third edition.
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The book opens with an introduction containing anatomic, physiologic, and pathophysiologic information. The first chapter is a brief historical survey, fol-. is helpful in many situations since the plugs may be left in place permanently and constitute not only an aid in the evaluation of dry eyes but, at the same time. PDF Download Pernkopf Anatomy: Atlas of Topographic and Applied Human Anatomy: Head and Neck (Pernkopf Anatomy, Vol 1)From Urban.
Upon arrival, students were given a brief tour and overview of the collection. Students were next introduced to the Topographische Anatomie des Menschen.
Toward this end, we made the first two English editions of the Topographische Anatomie des Menschen available [ 1 , 2 ]. As students evaluated the physical copies of the books, they were oriented to particularly noteworthy illustrations as well as its publication history and contemporary critical reception. We hoped the students might appreciate the Atlases as physical objects separated from any historical context, much as readers of the first English edition of the Topographische Anatomie des Menschen might have approached the work before the grim background of its anatomical subjects came to light.
While many of these signatures were quite mundane, others contain much more sinister details. Failing to discover the outliers through happenstance, the students were directed to turn to specific pages.
On these panels, they encountered signatures featuring embedded swastikas and Schutzstaffel SS Bolts for example, see Figure Nerves and blood vessels in fossa carotica [ 9 ]. Following a period of group reflection, these visual remnants of Nazi ideology were used to connect the Atlas itself to the more contemporary debates regarding its place in academia. At this point, we found that despite our original intention, more than half of the students had not accessed the readings before the seminar.
As the piece was brief, a student was enlisted to read the letter aloud. Together, the group worked to identify the ethical issues presented in the letter.
Issues of consent, autonomy, and cadaver rights were addressed. A detailed look at the procurement of cadavers after the Anschluss of the annexation of Austria into the Third Reich followed. For example, in February , a decree from the minister of education of the German Reich proclaimed all bodies of executed prisoners were to be sent to the nearest department of anatomy.
It is important to note that much of these data were only discovered fairly recently, again as a result of the investigation advocated by Israel and Seidelman. As much of this material was covered in the Hildebrandt text, which many of the students had not read, extra time was taken during this portion of the seminar to allow group reflection.
In his signature, Lepier frequently used the "r" at the end of his name as the basis for a swastika , and Endtrasser likewise used two Sig runes , the lightning-bolt insignia of the Schutzstaffel SS , for the "ss" in his name.
For illustrations he made in , Batke similarly dated them by stylizing the two "4"'s as Sig Runes. It was large enough that it required two books, one devoted to anatomy in general and the other covering more specifically the chest and pectoral limbs. Four years later, in , the second volume, likewise requiring two books, came out. It covered the abdomen, pelvis and pelvic limbs.
With the exception of Lepier, ineligible for service because of his severe varicose veins , all the artists entered military service. Lepier nevertheless volunteered as an air raid warden , as did Batke when he returned home after being wounded and receiving the Iron Cross on the Eastern front. These duties interrupted their artistic work. He continued to serve in those positions until World War II ended two years later, with the surrender of Germany , including Austria.
His fortunes would change radically as a result.
Fearing that he might suffer legal or political repercussions for his previous Nazi party membership and prewar actions, he went on what he claimed was a vacation to Strobl in the state of Salzburg. However, he was arrested by American military authorities in August , and by May he had been terminated from all his remaining positions with the university.
Although he was ultimately never charged with any crimes, he was required to do regular hard labor throughout his imprisonment. The experience left him drained and exhausted when he returned to Vienna after his release, hoping to continue his work on the atlas.
Hans Hoff , a Jewish physician who had left the Vienna faculty in , gave him two rooms at the school's neurological institute. They continued working in the small space Hoff gave them.
There was some tension among them as the three who had served felt Lepier, with whom they had never been close personally to begin with, had had a much easier time of it during the war than they had, a bitterness aggravated by the Third Reich's defeat by the Allies. He worked by himself while Pernkopf resumed his prewar schedule despite the privations he had endured.
Wilhelm Dietz, older than the others, contributed paintings of the neck and pharynx during his two years on the project. Elfie von Siber painted facial muscles. The third volume, covering the head and neck, was released in Two of his former colleagues, Alexander Pickler and Werner Platzer, completed it for its publication. A few years later, the publisher brought out a condensed two-volume set with all the color plates, removing most of Pernkopf's explanatory text and, later, airbrushing out the Nazi symbols Lepier and the others added to their signatures.
Collection development policies on the handling of controversial materials should not permit restricted access as a means of censorship. Librarians have a long history of self-censorship, wherein they try to preempt trouble by not downloading or controlling access to items that have the potential for causing controversy [ 52 ]. People are often too embarrassed or intimidated to ask a librarian for items that are not readily available. So, by restricting access librarians are, in effect, preventing their distribution or censoring their use.
It is considered unethical for libraries and librarians to act as censors, even when the material is controversial. It was on this basis that medical libraries across the United States retain their copies of the Pernkopf atlas.
There is no prohibition, however, to librarians adding statements that alert the reader to controversial or erroneous material. Adding such statements directly to material in public library holdings is ethical and especially important when works may contain material that may have violated the ethical standards of the medical community.
Many librarians have inserted the University of Vienna's statement in their copies of the Pernkopf Anatomy. Others have added notes or electronic links to the Pernkopf record in their electronic card catalogs directing users to more information about the controversy, and others have prepared folders with copies of the articles on the topic that are shelved with the atlas.
This is the proper ethical response of a library to the conflict between intellectual freedom and the violation of medical ethics, to let all potential users of a controversial piece of information know its background. Our job is not to judge but to inform, to let users know what we know about a given item in our collection. Our duty is to ensure that when we are aware that the data in an article or a book has been derived through unethical experimentation, that patients have been denied informed consent, or that data has been deliberately falsified, that all potential users of the data are aware of its origins.
References to citations of claims of ethical impropriety should be handled like retractions and errata and inserted into journals and added to literature searches.
All librarians, and medical librarians in particular, need to develop a consistent and uniformly applied system for dealing with this problem.
We need to heighten our awareness of the ethical issues involved in the medical literature we acquire and provide access to. We must be prepared to call attention to those pieces of scientific information that do not meet the highest ethical standards. Our goal as medical librarians is to provide access to the best medical information possible, so our duty is to spend the time and effort necessary to inform our users of the ethical quality of the information they are using.
Others also claim that the work is no longer unique, that adequate substitutes do exist. The Visible Human Project at the U. National Library of Medicine is cited as fast making all of the old anatomy texts obsolete [ 56 ]. The aim of that project is to build a digital image library of volumetric data representing completely a healthy male and a healthy female.
But even that project is not without its controversies. There is also an ethical controversy. Jernigan was a convicted murderer. On July 3, , he stabbed and shotgunned to death a seventy-five-year-old man, who surprised him during a robbery. He was executed on August 5, He had willed his body to the Texas Anatomy Board, but almost certainly did not know he was a candidate for the Visible Human Project at the time of his death.
Only after the body had been selected did the committee who chose the body realize that they had selected an executed prisoner convicted of murder [ 59 ]. This raises the issue of proper informed consent. The committee decided that because the man had freely donated his corpse to medical research, there were no ethical barriers to it becoming part of the project.
But more importantly the use of this particular cadaver raises the question of whether the project glamorizes a convicted murderer, making him appear more sympathetic and allowing him to perform a service to society through no effort of his own.
The Visible Human Male is, after all, a rather heroic, perhaps even a noble, figure. However, his date and cause of death, as well as his state of origin were public information. His identity has been widely known and reported [ 60 ].
The announcement that the subject was an executed prisoner brought an interesting response from, of all places, the University of Vienna, specifically a group from the Department of Emergency Medicine [ 61 ]. These doctors maintained that the death penalty and medical participation in an execution were unethical and that informed consent by the executed person did not dispel the unethical basis of the material used in this project.
They called for the immediate withdrawal of the pictures as morally necessary. Hannalore Rader, university librarian at the University of Louisville, as a native German speaker provided expert assistance in reading the original report.
My sincerest thanks go to both of them and to Dr. William Seidelman for putting me in touch with Dr. I would also like to thank the BMLA reviewers for their very helpful suggestions that improved the quality of this paper.
The current editions have had the Nazi iconography airbrushed out. The editors, however, missed two. J Biocommun. The Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift from to Wien Klin Wochenschr. Springtime for Pernkopf. Hosp Pract office edition. Pernkopf anatomy: atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy, v. Platzer W, ed. Monsen H, transl.
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Pernkopf anatomy: atlas of topographic and applied human anatomy, vol. Refer Librar.
Leading medical school seriously damaged: Vienna Ann Intern Med. Nazi origins of an anatomy text: the Pernkopf atlas. Medicine and murder in the Third Reich. Origins of the Pernkopf anatomy atlas. Untersuchen zur anatamischen wissenschaft in Wien — Investigations of anatomical science in Vienna — results of the Senate Project of the University of Vienna.
Matouschek B, ed. Porzer MT, trans. Nazi science—the Dachau hypothermia experiments. N Engl J Med.
Doctors question use of Nazi's medical atlas.