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Runner's World - Marz Runner's World Italia - Febbraio Runner's World South Africa - February Runner's World - Februar Runner's World UK - February Runner's World Italia - Gennaio Runner's World Mexico - Diciembre Runner's World South Africa - January Runner's World Sweden - Januari Runner's World - Januar Runner's World Italia - Dicembre Runner's World Mexico - November Runner's World - December Runner's World Spain - Noviembre Runner's World Italia - Novembre Runner's World South Africa - November Runner's World - November Runner's World Spain - Octubre Runner's World Spain - Septiembre Runner's World South Africa - October Runner's World - Oktober Runner's World - Octobre In the past, vegetarian or vegan diets have been described as being deficient in several nutrients including vitamin B12 Gilsing et al.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the observed deficiencies are usually due to poor meal planning Leitzmann Although there has been some concern about protein intake for vegetarian and vegan athletes, data indicate that all essential and non-essential amino acids can be supplied by plant food sources alone as long as a variety of foods are consumed and the energy intake is adequate Nieman Furthermore well planned, varied, appropriately supplemented vegetarian and vegan diets high in nutrient density appear to successfully and effectively support parameters that influence athletic performance Rodriguez et al.
Yet, some athletes, regardless of diet, may lack nutritional knowledge critical to preventing nutrition-related health problems. However, most athletes have positive attitudes toward nutrition and are receptive to nutritional counseling Zawila et al.
Considering the growing background numbers of vegetarians and vegans Stahler ; Vegetarierbund Deutschland , we assume that the number counts of vegetarian and vegan runners is rising, too. There are many vegetarian and vegan athletes especially in endurance and ultra-endurance disciplines such as Alan Murray and Janette Murray-Wakelin marathon running Murray and Murray-Wakelin , Michael Arnstein marathon running Arnstein , Fiona Oakes marathon running , Vlad Ixel ultra-marathon running , Scott Jurek ultra-marathon running , Ruth Heidrich triathlon Greatveganathletes.
Considering these and numerous other successful ultra- endurance athletes adhering to various vegetarian and vegan diets provides sufficient evidence that high-level endurance and ultra-endurance performance can be achieved by following a vegetarian or vegan diet.
Therefore it is reasonable to conclude that a vegetarian or vegan diet is compatible with successful endurance and ultra-endurance performance. Yet the prevalence of vegetarians or vegans in endurance running events has not been investigated to date.
Scientific data about endurance and ultra-endurance athletes following a vegan diet is limited.
Wirnitzer and Kornexl described the successful implementation of a vegan diet during an 8-day mountain bike race of a female athlete. Leischik and Spelsberg investigated an ultra-endurance triathlete on a raw vegan diet, with reference to his ability to perform, cardiac status, and any symptoms of deficiency.
Since case reports are not adequate to draw any scientific conclusions to a larger population, the NURMI Study was designed as a comparative study with a large study population to investigate the prevalence in running events and to detect potential differences in running performance comparing three subgroups: omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan endurance runners.
The future results of the NURMI Study might be useful to develop adequate strategies on nutrition behavior and might help to design individualized interventions in order to meet the nutritional challenges of demanding endurance running races and the requirements of vegetarian and vegan endurance runners. The second goal is to investigate the prevalence of vegetarian and vegan runners in endurance half-marathon and marathon events.
Methods The NURMI Study was designed by an interdisciplinary team of primary care physicians, sports medicine specialists, sport scientists, and nutrition scientists. An overview of all components of the intervention is shown in Fig.