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For the contribution of the Jesuits in early modern Polish-Lithuanian culture cf. Obirek eds.
Vilnensis s. The Emperor pleased with turn of events turns to the oracle, and is informed of the fall of his reign. In the meanwhile Lama succeeds in capturing the palace and kills Emperor Shunzhi. He is then arrested by the Mandarins and killed.
This particular play is believed to have been written by Polish Jesuit and Neo-lat- in writer Krzysztof Eynarowicz Aside from these exotic elements, the play uses this story to convey the moral deg- radation and civic disorder which comes with the abuse of power.
Abuse of power leads to rebellion, mutiny and civic disorder. Hence, men do not have the last say, rather there is someone or something beyond man, who puts measure on his abuses.
At one point, realizing his lack of charity and compassion, he asks God for forgiveness, express- ing his willingness to suffer any punishment, which seems to come in the form of the mutiny and betrayal of his sons and army. What should account for the popularity of this work in these years?
There is the obvious theme of repentance making it an ideal play, which was performed during the Lenten season. The Emperor patiently bears his sufferings, which are the just punishment for his sins, even it meant the loss of all his power and his own children.
We also have the implied reflection on the nature of the Just King, above whom stands Divine Justice. The theme of the tyrant, as depicted in the two plays discussed above, betrays not only the historical context in which they were performed but more importantly the vir- tues and values which citizens of the Commonwealth esteemed and aspired for. As in the case of Emperor Shunzhi and Lama and Emperor Mauricius, the story of these two monarchs shows them as tyrants who abuse of their power.
The very choice therefore of these themes to be performed in Jesuit schools, which educated the sons of noblemen of the Com- monwealth, could not ring an even stronger note of warning to the audience.
Korotaj et al. Bi- bliografia, vol. Programy drukiem wydane do r. Hence essentially, the tyrant is also seen as the enemy of the state, who brings disorder and injustice and therefore had to be duly punished if social order is to be restored. The life of moral virtue, promoted in these schools as portrayed in these plays, was expected of such young men, who were to be employed in political office and had thus had to be models of virtue and lead exemplary lives of moral conduct.
Modrzewski A. Secondary Sources Chmielewski J. Dawni pisarze polscy. Hahn W. Korotaj W. Bib- liografia, vol. Maniewska D. Pietrzyk-Reeves D. Pollak R. Puchowski K. Rzegocka J. Urban W. Wagner-Rundell B. Zaleski S. She has authored articles on metaphysical prose and poetry and early modern book history and culture.
Her current research in- terests include the reception of Edmund Campion and his works in the Polish-Lithu- anian Commonwealth. These two boundaries fostered intensification of cultural differ- ences.
Christianity shaped the image of man, state, history, esthetic views as well as religious, social and political customs within two distinct cultures: Latin and Hellenic. On the Orthodox side, the patronage of faith in these areas was more unequivocal. In the times of the First Polish Republic both cultures met in one state. The political factor dominated in Latin American countries.
It dic- tated the methods of action also to the Church. The adaptation that Ruthenia had undergone in the Republic of Poland had far-reaching political, social, economic and cultural consequences. This fact is perceived in Russia as separatism used in geopolitical interests of many countries, including Poland, against Russia. Jagiellonian Poland that came to existence in the period of confessional tensions in Europe was subjected to internal contra- dictory cultural trends and political conflicts in the region, whereas Rome made efforts to control Christianity.
These circumstances did not create prospects for development of the Republic of Poland. These two boundaries fostered intensification of cultural differences. Christianity shaped the image of man, state, history, aesthetic as well as religious views, and social and political customs within two distinct cultures: On the Ortho- dox side, the patronage of faith in these areas was more unequivocal.
It dictated the methods of action also to the Church. The cultural-confessional adaptation that Ruthenia has undergone in the Republic of Poland had far-reaching political, social, economic and cultural consequences.
This fact is perceived in Russia as separatism used in geopolitical interests of many countries against Russia, including Poland. The Jagiel- lonian Commonwealth that came into existence in the period of confessional tensions in Europe was subjected to internal contradictory cultural trends and political conflicts in the region, whereas Rome made efforts to control Christianity. This situation was conducive to shifting the boundary of Latin culture to the east.
The Ferrara-Florence Union between Rome and Constantinople, which was under pressure from the Turkish invasion, had influenced the process. Due to the fact that the union was closely linked to political events, it had no permanent effect. Moscow did not acknowledge the union at all and after the fall of Constantinople it became convinced of its eschatologi- cal mission as Rome III. The Republic of Poland had nine Orthodox dioceses within its borders and was not interested in the Council of Florence.
Moreover, it did not send deputies to the council, although it was involved in financing of the project. This marriage was conducive to the establishment of 1 Rev. Edmund Przekop elaborates on it objectively in: Rzym — Konstantynopol. Muscovite deputies employed artists in Rome to rebuild the Kremlin.
It was con- nected with the fact that during the whole sixteenth century Rome did not cease mak- ing efforts to organize the anti-Turkish league. Polish kings opposed that in fear of demands to return West Ruthenian duchies. Moscow had to take this fact into account. On the other hand, it needed an alliance with Rome to mediate in oppressive conflicts with Poland.
The legate was not allowed to pass through the territory of the Republic of Poland and similar situations reoccurred. Until , Ruthenian Orthodox Church, irrespective of its nationality, was sub- ject to the jurisdiction of one archdiocese — Kiev.
After that date, the Kiev archdiocese administered the dioceses within the borders of the Republic of Poland and the Mus- covite diocese was built for the diocese of the Muscovite state. We will omit the broader background of this conflict and focus on the stance that Ruthenia took in the union state.
We will particularly pay attention to the changes that began in the then Ruthenian-Orthodox culture under the influence of changing political conditions. Cultural transformation that occurred in Lithuanian- -Polish Ruthenia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries influenced cultural trans- formations in Moscow.
However, we must bear in mind that since the Lithuanian expansion to Ruthenian territories in the fourteenth century, the major- ity of population of this substantial state were Orthodox Ruthenians. Lithuania was influenced by Orthodox-Ruthenian culture and was later Polonized and Latinized. It was manifested in the following aspects: These changes were often introduced under coercion. However, the Orthodox bishops were not part of the Senate.
Serfage of peasants modeled on Poland also begun. Boyars and Ruthenian-Lithuanian nobility, in order to gain privileges available to Polish nobility, often abandoned the Orthodox Church and Polonized themselves. The rest of the population remained with the Orthodox tradition. These two social groups, built from the same cultural background, began to move away from each other. Administrative changes in Lithuania, as before in Polish Ruthenia, also led to the collapse of Ruthenian castles.
Traditionally, they were patrimonial and their wealth was dependent on the wealth of farmers and craftsmen. They were integrated with the surrounding villages. The population moved freely between states.
Along with Polish domination, this kind of mobility began to vanish. The phenomenon was deepened by the dependence of serfdom. Cities that collapsed because of civilization transforma- tions began to rise and were given German-Magdeburg municipal law.
According to the law, cities were managed by the mayor and the councilors, whereas the commune head and town councilors dealt in judging. Urban culture in Polish-Ruthenian and Lithua- nian-Ruthenian territories was gradually becoming Latin culture and especially villages remained Orthodox.
Cities in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were becoming increasingly expansive and began to play an important role in the economy and poli- tics and dominate in the culture. The Orthodox did not usually have representatives in municipal governments so they did not influence the creation of the law.
In the sixteenth century, primarily in Lithuanian Ruthenia, Lutheranism and Cal- vinism began to spread. According to Stanislaw Litak, at the end of the sixteenth cen- tury there were more Protestant churches in Lithuanian dioceses than Roman Cath- olic parishes. The trend was also indicated by the fact that in the Teutonic Order and its master separated from the Catholic Church. They began to translate Protestant works into Polish, Lithuanian and Ruthe- 2 The Ruthenian-Lithuanian privileges of boyars on controlling peasantry, judiciary and administration were confirmed in the Lithuanian Statute of This code, written in Ruthenian, Polish and Latin, still contained features of Ruthenian legislation.
Each successive version of the statute was made simi- lar to Polish law. However, the decision of Zygmunt August did not include the Orthodox hi- erarchs.
They had enormous influence among majority of Ruthenian and Lithuanian nobility. The Diet of Lublin sealed the political union of the two states. Poland took back four provinces from Lithuania: Protestants were supported by the Lithuanian noblemen and founded higher education institutions for gentry youth. In , Jesuits commenced dynamic activity in Vilnius. They soon became centers of Ortho- dox culture. In the years , near Vilnius and Lviv brotherhoods schools were opened. Despite the provisions of the diet, the fate of the Orthodoxy in Lithuania, since the time of personal union, had been largely dependent on the decisions of Polish kings, who had been great Lithuanian Princes at the same time.
At the time, Ruthenian nobility were members of the royal council. At the Diet of Vilnius , gentry demanded to ban Orthodox individuals who served as state officials.
At the same time, the Lviv Orthodox Brotherhood complained to the king about the oppression. Kowalska, H. Byrska, Rev. Bednarz eds. They were culture-creating Orthodox centers characteristic of these times. At that time in Moscow, printing liturgical books was considered heresy. The culture specificity of Lithuanian-Polish Ruthenia of that period was tied to the fact that the direction of its development was influenced by Jesuit activists who were called by Rome to counter the spread of Protestantism.
They also acted against Orthodoxy in the Republic of Poland. In , Rev. On the unity of the Church of God under one shepherd and on its Greek withdrawal, in order to prejudice and convince Ruthenians that listened to the Greeks. Orthodox literature was part of the religious literary war that took place in the seven- teenth century on the land belonging to the Commonwealth of Two Nations inhabited by the Ortho- dox.
Bibliografija, Vilnius ; M. See also idem, Domus divisa. In the Diocese of Lviv, Catholic Archbishop Dmitri Sulikowski ordered to close Orthodox churches at Christ- mas of due to the rejection of the new calendar by the Orthodox. In this context, efforts to succeed to the Moscow throne could not have been suc- cessful either. Only the internal Muscovite Time of Troubles strengthened the position of the Republic of Poland in the conflict with Moscow. Bishops were not cho- sen by the Council, according to the Canon Law of the Orthodox Church, but ap- pointed by the king.
They were often seculars rewarded with dioceses for political merits. These people were ordained bishops or administrators of the diocese, appoint- ing other ordained bishops to be their successors. When he was young, he studied at the Calvinist school where he left Orthodoxy, but returned to it in adulthood.
He renounced secular offices, made monastic vows with the name of Hipacy and was ordained priest and bishop. Ostrogski, the then union advocate, perceived this experienced politician and educated man, who knew Latin, as his assistant. Actions of bishops on the union renewal were implicit, which was in contradiction with the Orthodox tradition in which the community of the faithful decided on im- portant matters of the Church.
Thus, it is not surprising that Duke Konstanty Ostrog- ski protested in spite of his attachment to the union idea. Orthodox brotherhoods organized protests in cities. The union was not supposed to operate under the rules developed by Ruthenian bishops, but in accordance with provisions of Coun- cil of Ferrara-Florence supplemented by provisions of the Council of Trent.
Piotr Skarga. This delegation was not allowed to join the debate due to the order of King Zygmunt III Vasa, who forbade foreigners to attend the synod. Mem- bers of the synod condemned the union and the bishops who signed it were deprived of offices. The Patriarch of Aleksandria administrator of Patriarchate of Constantinople since , Melecjusz Pigas , recognized this act as valid and appointed his exarchs in the Republic of Poland: King Zygmunt III approved the union. In , the court sentenced Patriarch Nicefor who was accused of spying for Turkey and impris- oned in Malbork where he died two years later.
See also W. Serczyk, Historia Ukrainy, 2nd ed.
It is significant that at the parlia- mentary session in , Volhynian gentry especially deputy Damian Hulewicz de- manded the dismissal of the Uniate hierarchs and ultimately the Sejm did not ratify the union.
During the Sejm session in , the Orthodox gentry demanded liquidation of the union. They tried to control the most important centers of Orthodoxy against the will of the faithful.
In , they failed to take over the Kiev Pieczersk Lavra which is also the cradle of Ruthenian monasticism and culture. Many conflicts began to arise during attempts to take over temples, monasteries and cemeteries. Jesuits took active part in creation of the Uniate Church consisting of hierarchs but without the faithful. The confederates in- tended to enforce the current law and prevent persecution and religious wars.
Signato- ries of the document were: Among them were province governors, castellans, chamberlains, judges, district governors, dukes and knights. He was one of the most zealous initiators of the union. In the following year, Zygmunt III granted Bishop Hipacy ad- ministrative authority over all the Orthodox sacred locations in Lithuania and Poland and entrusted him with control over the ecclesiastical court for the Orthodox. Tak- ing over Orthodox temples in Vilnius by Bishop Hipacy triggered religious riot in the years The following year, Cossacks protested in Kiev.
After sealing the Orthodox churches in in Kiev, there were Cossack protests. The most difficult issue of this conflict was the monastic aspect. Monasticism, which came into existence among Egyptian Greeks and developed in the cenobitic tradition of Cappadocia, played an extraordinary role in Orthodoxy.
Fathers of the Church, who came from monasteries, contributed to the establishment of dogmas of faith. Hierarchs were chosen out of the priors of significant Orthodox monasteries. Christian anthro- pology was developed in the monasteries.
Ruthenian Orthodox Church also owes its development to monasteries. Thus, all changes in the Church were fateful for the con- vent. That was also the case with the Union of Brest. Monasteries remained anti-union bastions. It took place between the founders and the Uniates. Krzysztof Chodkiewicz24 played an impor- tant role at this point. In , the monastery was forced to adopt the Basilian Uniate rule.
Shortly afterwards, the second important center of Orthodox culture became less significant than the Kiev Pieczersk Lavra. Being there, he studied ecclesiologi- cal differences and polemic literature for seven years. After twelve years of absence he returned to Lithuania. For this purpose, he was assisted by the pope, who sent some Discalced Carmelites to Vilnius. Monks were initially under the spiritual care of Jesuits.
The statute of the congre- gation did not reject the traditional ascetic rule, whereas in landed affairs it set similar goals to those of the Society of Jesus. Un- like the Orthodox tradition, special assemblies for novices were formed and organized by Jesuits. Therefore, this duty fell to Jesuits. It was the beginning of Uniate 25 See also P. However, the Uniates did not succeed in developing monastic life.
The Orthodox had more monasteries. The nuncio emphasizes that many Uniate monasteries were emp- ty. At the same time, he was an idealistic man, and this is why he devoted himself to the mission of building the Uni- ate Church. What he considered the most important and what was the direction of development of this Church was education.
The union was joined by Ruthenian hierarchy, mostly for non-ecclesiological reasons, and some gentry youth. The metropolitan had great difficulty in raising funds for the Uni- ate seminary. Therefore, Orthodox gentry youth were educated in Jesuit or Calvinist colleges and often converted to these denominations.
In , when Patriarch of Jerusalem, Teofanes, arrived in Kiev, the faithful hoped that the bishop would attend the convened synod. When it did not happen, the Orthodox finally refused to obey the bishop.
Then, outraged Ruthenians invaded the premises of Archbishop of Witebsk and murdered him. This event was preceded by extensive correspondence consisting of numerous pe- titions from the faithful, monks and clergy, addressed to the Warsaw Sejm, the Senate and city tribunals, complaining of persecution on the part of Uniate hierarchs. Both sides sued each other. Deputies of the Sejm of Warsaw delivered accusatory speeches. He closed Orthodox cemeteries and ordered to throw out corpses from graves which were buried against his prohibition.
The chancellor accused Jozafat of unreliability in describing the socio-religious situation in Lithuania and inconsistent attitude towards Christian ethics. The chancel- lor emphasized that since the Republic of Poland did not prohibit Jews and Muslims from owning temples, it could not deny it to the Orthodox.
The Uniate Metropolitan of Kiev stayed mostly in Vilnius. Although Cossacks took part in conquering Moscow alongside both the usurpers, they defended Orthodoxy in the Republic of Poland.
Thanks to them, the Orthodox hierarchy of the Republic of Poland could be reborn in Kiev. An important event was the visit of Patriarch of Jerusalem, Teofanes. He was in Moscow in to participate in enthronization of Patriarch Filaret and then Hetman Konaszewicz invit- ed him to Kiev.
The synod was protected by Zaporozhian Cossacks.
Jozafat was murdered in Witebsk. For this reason, the king punished the city by taking away the city charter and liquidating Orthodox churches. The situation lasted until the First Partition. When the archbishop asked the chancellor about his own security, he replied that he was the cause of the threat himself.
Ultimately, they rested at St. This topic is discussed extensively by Aleksander Naumow in his book Domus divisa. Contrary to expectations, the union had fewer and fewer followers. The instructions addressed to the papal nuncio in the Republic of Poland, John the Baptist Lancellotti, show that Uniate dioceses had no faithful. The nuncio also clearly stated that the union was con- cluded to completely destroy Orthodoxy in the Republic of Poland.
It was reflected in numerous peasant and Cossack speeches. An important role on the Orthodox side played Pieczersk monastery in Kiev, which, due to numerous donations from Ruthenian magnates, had significant economic power.
The death of Zygmunt III raised hopes for defusing conflicts. The Convo- cation Sejm summarized the period of the past reign and recovery plans were submit- ted. Orthodox delegates, allied with Protestants, demanded restoration of full rights of the Orthodox Church. The demand was to abolish the ban on construction of an Orthodox church, 35 A. Naumow, Domus divisa…, pp. They required punishment for offense and violence towards the Or- thodox.
Apart from the petition of gentry and clergy, Cossacks also presented more uncompromising postulates. He also legalized existing brotherhoods, schools and printing houses. The king offered the Uniates the following choice: It was obvious that the second solution would have deprived Uniates of almost everything they owned. The year period of banning the Orthodox Church in the Republic of Poland came to an end.
The hi- erarchs acted illegally for 11 years. At that time, the Kiev archdiocese had six dioceses: Only the Met- ropolitan of Kiev, Iow Borecki , could stay in his cathedral under cover of Cossack troops until Therefore, the newly elected bishops hid in monasteries and secretly administered the dioceses.
Thus, he understood the union not in jurisdictional-ecclesiological but cul- tural sense. Aleksy Kartaszow emphasizes that choosing Metropolitan Piotr was not in accordance with Orthodox tradition. Therefore, this nomination could not meet with an unambiguously positive feedback of Orthodox clergy and monasteries.
He renewed the Council of St. Sophia and sacrificed it once more. He rose from the ruins one of the first Ruthenian temples, the Church of the Tithes. The metropolitan transferred some of the relics of St. Restaurants enriched the architectural style of Ruthenia with the so-called baroque of Kiev.
It led to aesthetic borrowings on the part of Ruthenian sacred art which fol- lowed Poland and Western Europe. The return to Ruthenian style did not take place until the second half of the nineteenth century.
Relations between the Orthodox and Roman Church were correct. Education devel- oped exceptionally well and an Orthodox college was founded in Kiev. It did not mean that Rome was abandoning its attempts to make the Orthodox join its jurisdiction. Moscow relics were kept in the Kremlin museum and were handed over to the Orthodox Church on the eve of the th anniversary of Christianization of Ruthenia. Jobert writes about it in: He invoked original unity of the Church and assumed that the Orthodox will surrender to papal jurisdiction un- til Constantinople does not regain freedom.
He claimed that the faithful must decide about the union, not the hierarchs. After the death of the metropolitan, his project was discussed during the session of the Sejm in Vilnius in Ruthenian gentry did not agree to the union without the consent of Patriarch of Constantinople and refused to renounce his authority.
Meanwhile, the Congregation demanded that the pope ap- prove Orthodox metropolitans. Only Ortho- dox gentry was to hold the office in three provinces: Uniate clerics, Jesuits and Jews were removed from the provinces. Although Ukrainian peasants and Cossacks were defending Orthodoxy, their political interests were often contradictory.
The situation of both Ruthenia in the Republic of Poland, the Republic of Poland itself and Lithuania became very complex on many levels: Poland committed itself to return the following dioceses to the Orthodox: The Orthodox, who remained within the borders of the Republic 44 See also ibid. Throughout the sixteenth century and until the end of the seventeenth century, Po- land and Lithuania experienced wars with Moscow.
Orthodox Ruthenians participated in the wars on the Polish-Lithuanian side. Great Ruthenian Princes had never renounced Kiev, emphasizing that it was their wotczina patrimonium.
Hostility between the followers of both confessions did not subside. It was the first major harbinger of secession of these lands from the Republic of Poland and incorporating them into Moscow. The decision was made without the consent of the General Sejm.
This political system was different from many Western monarchy systems and favored the resurgence of the Orthodox Church. The first step of Ruthenian gentry was to make the Sejm consider if provisions of the Union of Brest complied with the law. The Orthodox skillfully used elements of the parliamen- tary system, such as the parliamentary tribune and the right of religious freedom estab- lished during the reign of Zygmunt August.
The Uniate hierarchy was often judged illegal in order to request liquidation of the union in The Sejm gave equal rights to both the confessions and demanded mutual respect and obedience to the law.
Despite that fact, the parliamentary tribune 45 Some of the Orthodox were found in Turkey after the Treaty of Buchach They were handed over to jurisdiction of Patriarch of Constantinople. The Republic of Poland renounced: Moscow of- fered an equivalent of , PLN in the form of compensation. Canonical survival of the Orthodox Church on the territory of the Republic of Poland was possible due to the fact that two bishops did not accede to the union: The rule-of-law system in the Republic of Poland made it possible for bishops to defend two Orthodox cathedrals de- spite the pressure of Uniate bishops and the king himself.
It enabled to ordain and send priests to dioceses that were managed by Uniate bishops. According to Rev. Edmund Przekop, the situation changed during the Coun- ter-Reformation.
The papal bull of Pius IV deprived Greeks of all religious privileges. It referred negatively to the Greek Rite which the pope considered as superstition, her- esy, godlessness and sacrilege, like in the case of Holy Communion served to infants immediately after christening. The Orthodox were handed over to the jurisdiction of Latin bishops. Przekop notes that this fact led to Latinization of the Greek Rite.
In the period of Counter-Reformation, Jesuit colleges were also founded in Orthodox ar- eas: Constantinople, Thessalonica, Athens and Smyrna. Studying there, young Greeks converted to Roman Catholicism. His suc- cessor, Sixtus V , understood the union as absolute subordination of the ecumenical patriarch. He also decided that decrees of local Orthodox synods will be submitted to Rome for approval. In , the Congregation for the Propaganda of the Faith was constituted.
It administered Eastern Catholic communities which were an- nexed to Roman jurisdiction. Rome established its patriarchates in the East in the times of the Crusades and made no difference between them and traditional patriarchates of the East. However, as Rev. Przekop emphasizes, Rome imposed its legal concept on them over time the Second Council of Lyon in Ecclesiological-law problems were intensified by theological differences.
Eastern theology cultivated the monastic-patristic tradition, whereas the Latin world chose scholasticism. Scholasticism concentrated on the interpretation of the Creed, liturgical rite, the cult of Mary and Christ and, above all, it appeared at schools on Orthodox terri- tories which were annexed to Rome. Hesichastic monastic Byzantine Renaissance was also noticeable in other areas outside Roman jurisdiction.
Przekop, Rzym — Konstantynopol…, pp. The boundary of Latin and Orthodox Church coincided with the political state border. These two boundaries were in favor of deepening cultural differences and increasing the sense of alienation. On the Orthodox side, the patronage of faith in these areas was more explicit. It also dictated methods of action to the Church. This ten- dency affected culture in Moscow more than anywhere else.
Without diminishing the importance of the dispute between Rome and Constan- tinople, it should be emphasized that since the sixteenth century European culture had been involved in the Roman-Protestant war. The war was based on an ecclesiological idea. The struggle between Rome and Prot- estants in Europe lasted for decades and was in favor of creating an abundant arsenal of resources necessary not only for effective polemics, but also for extending influence on another territory.
Both Rome and especially Calvinists had an extensive network of schools, publishing houses, printing houses, bookstores and similar tools that served to fight each other and influence the change of cultural and civilization standards in Lith- uanian-Polish Ruthenia. The Orthodox were not an isolated group in social or political sense, so the tools became available also to them.
The latter were more efficient in administering educational institutions and publishing houses, but the Orthodox were familiar with them either. If it were not for this fundamental dispute within the Latin culture, its development would certainly not have been so unexpectedly dynamic.
The impact of Polish culture on the Orthodox en- vironment would also have been different. It would not have affected essential areas of religious tradition. The dominant Christological element did not make issues of philosophy and moral theolo- gy come to the fore, but Christology and anthropology. It guaranteed the advantage of monastery culture over the culture of the Byzantine school.
Monasteries in Ruthenian history, unlike Byzantium, were the only culture-making institution. The Time of Troubles in Muscovite state was the moment when the syndrome of West-European culture moved to the East in the form of an inter-confessional dispute. Initially, defenders of the tradition had the upper hand, but their victory was purely political. Because the Muscovite culture was solely religious, the process referred primarily to the Church.
In , the Moscow Synod appealed to the Orthodox people of the Republic of Poland and warned them not to join the union with Roman Church.
He spread corrupted faith with the help of fake prophets and teachers: Jesuits and Uniates. Philosophy and rhetoric were attributes of Jesuit erudition and tools in the hands of Antichrist to attract the Orthodox to the Latin Church. It should be assumed that Muscovite hierarchs were not interested in methodology of learning, which was the foundation for polemical arguments, but in the defense of Orthodoxy.
It indicates marginalization of further influence of the dynamic factor on Ruthenian Orthodox culture which is manifested by the endeavor to transform and exceed earthly existence in hesichastic mysticism. The static- hierarchical model of the state is stabilized. It influences the attitude towards cultural and religious im- pact of Kiev.
The continuation of Byzantine Rome was sanctioned by the council of when the first Patriarch of Moscow was elected. Therefore, this title acquired canonical qualities: All the truth contributed to one Tsar- dom and you are the only Christian Tsar all over the universe, for all Christians. Bibliografija, Vilnius Jobert A. Litak S. Index librorum lati- norum Lituaniae saeculi septimi decimi, Vilnius Naumow A.