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This pullout absorbs energy, thereby toughening the composite. In electronic, aerospace, and engine components, the enhanced thermal conductivity is attractive for heat dissipation.
In general, the drying shrinkage decreases with increasing solid content in the slurry. Fibers are more effective than particles at decreasing the drying shrinkage. This function is attractive for the dimensional control of parts made from the composites.
Fiber-reinforced glasses are useful for space structural applications, such as mirror back structures and supports, booms and antenna structures. In addition, increased toughness, strength and modulus are desirable. Additional attractions are low friction, high wear resistance, and low density. For example, concrete is a particulate composite in which cement is the matrix and sand and stones are the two types of particles that are present together.
The components in a composite can also take the form of layers. The interlaminar interface is the region between the two parallel lines that are separated by 8. The interface between two adjacent laminae is known as the interlaminar interface, which is the mechanically weak link in the laminate.
Figure 1. This means that the through-thickness direction is relatively weak mechanically, and delamination local separation of the laminae from one another is a common form of damage in these composites. The fibers above the interface are in the plane of the paper, whereas those below the interface are perpendicular to the paper also has a relatively high electrical resistivity i. In other words, the composites are strongly anisotropic i. Both two-dimensional and higher-dimensional weaves are used, though the latter has the advantage of enhanced interlaminar shear strength.
An 8H satin weave is preferred over a plain weave because of the inhomogeneous matrix distribution around the crossed bundles in the plain weave. Microcracks tend to develop beneath the bundle crossover points.
Fiber bundles with small curvatures fail due to tensile stress or due to a combination of tensile and bending stresses. Microcrack initiation occurs at these points, thus resulting in low strength in the carbon— carbon composite. Concrete is the most widely used civil structural material. Cement paste is rigid after curing the hydration reaction involving cement — a silicate — and water to form a rigid gel.
It can be a polymer used in either a liquid solution form or a solid dispersion form such as latex, again to decrease the porosity. Due to the bidding system used for many construction projects, low cost is essential. Fibrous cement-matrix composites are structural materials that are gaining in importance quite rapidly due to the increasing demand for superior structural and functional properties. A low drying shrinkage is par- 8 1 Composite Material Structure and Processing ticularly valuable for large structures, as cracks can form due to the shrinkage and the cracks are wide for the same fractional shrinkage if the structure is large.
The processability depends largely on the ability of the components to join, thereby forming a cohesive material. The required temperature and pressure, as well as the processing time, are typically dictated by the matrix material. This problem tends to be particularly serious in metal-matrix composites, due to the relatively high processing temperatures involved.
After impregnation or intermixing, consolidation is carried out, often under heat and pressure. Thermoset- 1. The advantages of thermoplastic-matrix composites compared to thermoset-matrix composites include the following: Lower manufacturing costs: No cure Unlimited shelf-life Reprocessing possible for repair and recycling Fewer health risks due to chemicals during processing Low moisture content Thermal shaping possible Weldability fusion bonding possible.
However, they give rise to composites that are more anisotropic. Polymer-matrix composites are much easier to fabricate than metal-matrix, carbon-matrix, and ceramic-matrix composites, whether the polymer is a thermoset or a thermoplastic. This is because of the relatively low processing temperatures required to fabricate polymer-matrix composites.
During curing, usually performed in the presence of heat and pressure, a thermoset resin hardens gradually due to the completion of polymerization and the associated crosslinking of the polymer molecules. Thermoplastic polymers have recently become important because of their greater ductility and processing speed compared to thermosets, and the recent availability of thermoplastics that can withstand high temperatures.
The higher processing speed of thermoplastics arises from the fact that amorphous thermoplastics soften immediately upon heating above the glass transition temperature Tg , and so the softened material can be shaped easily. Subsequent cooling completes the processing. In contrast, the curing of a thermoset resin is a reaction that occurs gradually. The liquid resin is the unpolymerized or partially polymerized matrix material in the case of a thermoset; it is the molten polymer or the polymer dissolved in a solvent in the case of a thermoplastic.
The molding methods are those conventionally used for polymers by themselves. For thermoplastics, the methods include injection molding heating above the melting temperature of the thermoplastic and forcing the slurry into a closed die opening through the use of a screw mechanism , extrusion forcing the slurry through a die opening via a screw mechanism , calendering pouring the slurry into a set of rollers with a small opening between adjacent rollers to form a thin sheet , and thermoforming heating above the softening temperature of the thermoplastic and forming over a die using matching dies, a vacuum or air pressure, or without a die using movable rollers.
For thermosets, compression molding or matched die molding applying a high pressure and temperature to the slurry in a die to harden the thermoset is commonly used. The yarns may be woven, if desired. Thus, structural composites are usually not unidirectional. The molding, called bag molding, is done by placing the tapes or fabrics in a die and introducing highpressure gases or a vacuum via a bag to force the individual plies together.
Bag molding is widely used to fabricate large composite components for the skins of aircraft. An example of a polymer precursor is an epoxy resin, which upon subsequent curing usually under heat and pressure forms epoxy polymer, a thermoset. An example of a polymer in a prepreg is nylon, which is a thermoplastic polymer.
In order to increase the usable period of an epoxy resin prepreg, the prepreg is typically stored in a freezer, as the low temperature in the freezer helps slow down the curing process. Even with storage in a freezer, the usable period of an epoxy resin prepreg is only a few months. The fabric may be impregnated with the resin or the polymer prior to being stacked Figure 1. A scanning electron microscope image of the surface of a carbon fiber epoxy prepreg. The fibers cannot be discerned due to their being covered with the resin 12 1 Composite Material Structure and Processing and consolidated to form a composite.
Related to weaving is braiding, which is commonly used to form a composite tubing. The advantage of using a fabric is that fabrics are easy to handle. All my Sewing Patterns are drafted separately for sizes Sewing Patterns have never been so easy. I make a range of garments from beginning to end - from fabric and cutting out, right through to completion.
Many of you have written requesting this pattern in the usual Angela Kane format. Separate drafts for all sizes This versatile classic is fully lined. The pattern includes detailed instructions for making up, a fabric guide and cutting out layouts for all the common fabric lengths. Are you brave enough to wear this absolutely plain? If not, dress it up in a multitude of ways. I will be trialling Multi Sized Patterns, a feature that is often requested by members.
I will be showing how this classic shape can be the basis of tailored jackets and coats.
Another of my designs using panels and featuring a two piece sleeve. This shape has endless potential for designers.
This sewing pattern will introduce you to the Princess Line. A semi-fitted coat-dress can be worn on its own, over a dress, over a jumper and knitted tights, over jeans. Worn buttoned up, open or belted.
Comprehensive eBook for Making Up. Here is a short clip.