The Gale encyclopedia of psychology / Bonnie R. Strickland, executive editor.– 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. PDF | This entry includes the following topics: beauty and art as social constructions; beauty and art as evolutionary adaptations; the adaptiveness of symmetry. A first reference guide for inquisitive minds. How Things Work. Encyclopedia. Technology. Robots How Things Work Encycl.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Indonesian|
|Genre:||Politics & Laws|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Registration needed]|
Retention Interval and Eyewitness Memory. Showups. Simultaneous and Sequential Lineup Presentations xiv———Encyclopedia of Psychology and Law . Encyclopedia of Multicultural Psychology Encyclopedia of applied psychology Psychology of Classroom Learning: An Encyclopedia (Psychology of. Encyclopedia of Psychology: 8 Volume Set. Alan E. Kazdin, PhD, Editor-in-Chief. LIST PRICE: $ MEMBER/AFFILIATE PRICE: $ pages.
Comrie, Germany Philosophy 94 P. After consultation with advisors and conversations between ourselves, we worked out the following ways to capture the complexity of work at the edges of the social and behavioral sciences.
Some subjects are relevant to all the social and behavioral sciences. Various methodologies, methods, and research techniques also arch over many of the social and behavioral sciences. A third category evokes areas of research in which some work is in the social and behavioral sciences, but which also include other kinds of work.
In the end we had to settle for ambiguity, because there is no unequivocally correct solution. Our ultimate justification was that our judgments were not unreasonable and that what mattered most was to guarantee coverage of all the relevant areas.
These 37 categories—representing overarching issues, methods, disciplines, intersecting fields, and applications—constitute our best effort to maximize coverage and to provide a basis for selecting section editors. We note that the number of categories 39 generated for the new encyclopedia is much larger than the number 12 for the edition. It is also nearly twice the number envisioned by the publishers and the scholars present at the first advisory meeting in We are unashamed of this expansion, acknowledging as it does the additional input provided by our extensive consultations as well as the accumulation, spread, and increased diversification of knowledge in the past 35 years.
Despite our efforts to maximize coverage, additional topics remained for which an argument for a distinct section could be made, but which we did not include as such. Assembling Section Editors and Advisors. Even before Baltes agreed to be co-editor-in-chief, it had been arranged that he would spend the academic year —98 as a residential Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences.
This coincidence proved to be a blessing. It was essential that we interact continuously during that year, because it was the period for finally consolidating the intellectual structure of the encyclopedia and designating and recruiting academic leaders. In the fall and winter of xliii Introduction we identified, sought, persuaded, and recruited one person to be responsible for entries in each section we included co-editors when a section editor requested one or when a section needed broader topical or international coverage.
Knowing that these appointments were crucial to the coverage and quality of the encyclopedia, we were thorough in our search, exploiting our networks of advice in the social and behavioral sciences, and creating such networks when we did not already have them.
A few additional section co-editors were added later, as evolving needs seemed to dictate. During the same period we recruited 86 scholars to constitute an International Advisory Board for the encyclopedia. We wanted this group to be composed of the most distinguished senior social and behavioral scientists around the world.
To identify them we sought advice through the same networks on which we relied to seek out section editors, and we also sought the opinions of section editors themselves as we appointed them.
We called on individual members of the advisory board from time to time, and asked all of them to become involved in reviewing and making suggestions for all the entry lists. On a few occasions the advisors offered unsolicited advice, to which we also listened and responded with care.
Weighting the Sections and Entries. We realized that not every section merited the same number of entries. We devised a scheme to assign entries to most of the disciplines and some of the intersecting fields, or to some other sections, and 50 entries to some of the smaller areas such as Religious Studies and Expressive Forms. In doing this we were simultaneously making qualitative judgments about the categories—once again with a degree of arbitrariness.
We never thought that these numbers were fixed, they were meant to be approximations. As a second weighting strategy we permitted section editors to vary the length of their entries between a minimum of 2, and a maximum of 5, words. We left these decisions mainly to section editors on grounds that they were the best judges of topical priority in their own areas, though we consulted with them from time to time. Also, inability to locate authors for some topics and author failures meant that the originally targeted numbers were seldom reached.
We employed one final method of weighting. The second were entries deemed important enough to merit original inclusion in the entry list, but less central to the discipline or field than the core items.
As time went on, and especially when we reached the final stages of commissioning, we pressed section editors to give highest priority to signing and securing core entries. Overlap and Redundancy. In the end—after several years of pondering, consulting, weighing, rejecting, including, reformulating, and coming to final decisions—we emerged reasonably satisfied that we had woven a seine that would catch almost all the fish swimming in the waters of the social and behavioral sciences.
In creating this structure, however, we discovered that other problems emerged as a result of our efforts to classify and select. Because our system captured so much of social and behavioral science work, we found we had captured too much. Overlap is a problem because the history of development in the social and behavioral science disciplines and elsewhere has been uncontrolled. Any scientist in any discipline can, by choice, take up a topic or research theme, and many scholars from different disciplines take up the same topics or themes.
This freedom generates both hybridization and overlapping of knowledge. Gender studies is a case in point. It infuses at least a dozen separate disciplines and other lines of inquiry. Race and ethnic relations is another illustration, as are legal studies, medical studies, urban studies, and gerontology. We therefore faced many problems of potential overlap in the encyclopedia.
To stay with the gender studies illustration, if we had asked all section editors simply to cover their fields, we would have found some identical and even more overlapping entries on gender in the sections on evolutionary science, genetics, anthropology, economics, geography, history, law, political xliv Introduction science, psychology, sociology, and religious studies, to say nothing of the section on gender studies itself.
In the course of our work the problem of overlap became as nettlesome as the problem of comprehensiveness of coverage. The smaller meetings were devoted almost entirely to identifying potentially overlapping entries among different section editors as a way of minimizing redundancy. Almost all section editors approached the process in a remarkably nonterritorial way, being as willing to give up entries as to take responsibility for them. Their cooperative spirit was facilitated by the knowledge that, in the end, the boundaries among sections would disappear into the alphabetical listing, and that readers would have no basis of knowing, except in a general way, which section editor was responsible for a given entry.
The main concerns in these horse-trading meetings were to assure coverage and minimize overlap, but also to increase quality control by finding the best match between the interests and abilities of section editors and entries.
This was a way of reducing overlap among sections, which individual section editors, with access to only their own section entries, could not identify adequately. Minimizing overlap of content, however, was not enough. We also strove to guide readers to related entries by an elaborate system of cross-referencing entries to one another. We asked authors and section editors to enter their own suggestions for cross-referencing within sections at the entry-approval and proofreading stages.
As editors-in-chief we are in charge of supplying cross-references across sections. Finally, it should be added that an inevitable residue of overlapping remains, despite all our efforts. Author Recruitment. We kept a running account of the acceptance rate of authors asked to contribute. Our statistics on this topic are not perfect, because they are incomplete and because there were occasional changes in topics that the invited authors covered after consulting with the editors.
Despite these shortcomings, we offer the following two approximate data. This rate persisted in the next round of invitations.
Quality Control. We made scientific and scholarly quality our primary and overriding concern throughout.
There were two levels of quality control, the first resting with the section editors, the second with the editors-in-chief. The main mechanisms for assuring quality, of course, were to select the best section editors we could, and to have the section editors create the best entry lists and recruit the best authors they could.
To facilitate the latter, we reviewed the entry lists and authors ourselves and circulated the lists among selected members of our International Advisory Board and independent experts, asking for emendations. All manuscripts approved by section editors were then sent to the editors-in-chief for final review and approval. We mention another mechanism of quality control if for no other reason than that it commanded so much of our attention.
Our reasoning was simple: we wanted each author to assume responsibility for his or her entry, and we wanted to prevent authors from agreeing to contribute but then assigning the work to an assistant and signing the entry as co-author. We may have been too cynical, but we were familiar enough with the practice to want to discourage it. As the signings began, however, we found that many potential authors wanted co-authors, some so strongly that they indicated they would not contribute if they could not have them.
Their demands raised yet another issue of quality control—losing authors we wanted—and threatened to overwhelm us with requests for exceptions. In the end we eased the policy somewhat, permitting co-authors if both were recognized scholars or had a history of collaborating with one another. This policy proved satisfactory, but we continued to receive queries from section editors on the issue of coauthorship. We granted occasional exceptions when we found that authors, through lack of understanding of the policy, had invited co-authors without prior permission.
The ultimate level of quality control rested with us, the editors-in-chief. We reviewed all entries after the section editors cleared them. Both of us took a careful look at every manuscript ourselves before finally approving it. We read most of them in full. In addition, we used a variety of expert colleagues as readers. Baltes, for instance, had seven colleagues representing neuropsychology, psychiatry, psychology, education, cognitive science, linguistics, and law, who as a group read about 1, manuscripts and offered valuable suggestions for improvement.
Smelser asked for occasional advice from others, and also employed an editorial assistant to go over all manuscripts for general readability. This number varied considerably by sections. Elsevier assumed responsiblity for translating some articles into English and for copy-editing all manuscripts before production.
In one final and important facet of quality control, we recruited Dr. She monitored the entire editorial process and reviewed—especially for Baltes—the formal aspects of the submitted entries. Her service was exceptional. Representativeness of Authors. What about authors and their origins?
Along with comprehensiveness, quality, and orderliness, we aspired to international and gender representativeness of authors in developing the encyclopedia. Of the four criteria, the last proved the most elusive. We were aware that research in many of the social and behavioral sciences is concentrated in North America, and if North America is combined with Western Europe, the pattern is one of outright dominance. We did not want this dominance to overwhelm the encyclopedia.
We wanted representation, however modest in some cases, from other regions of the world. We were also aware that biases along gender and age lines are likely to work their way into any encyclopedic effort, unless active steps are taken to counteract them. In selecting editors, however, we confess that we found it extremely difficult to locate satisfactory candidates in regions outside North America and Europe, largely because the social and behavioral sciences are less developed in these areas and because many scholars there are less acquainted with general developments in their fields.
At a certain moment, just after the section editors had submitted their semi-final lists of entries, along with two alternative authors for each entry, we went over every entry list and communicated to all authors about the regional and gender balance of their lists.
In some cases we suggested finding alternative authors, and in others we suggested reversing first and second choices to achieve better balance, if quality would not be sacrificed. This process was not restricted to the initial phase of author selection. We strove throughout the writing process to increase the number of non-North American authors. Whenever a new entry xlvi Introduction was added or we noticed that an entry was not yet assigned to an author, we attempted to strengthen international as well as gender representation.
These interventions produced significant results in the relevant proportions. We supplemented their efforts with our own inquiries. For example, we wrote to a large number of presidents of Eastern European academies to enlist their support in identifying candidates for authorship. In reporting these efforts we acknowledge that there is no fixed and correct formula for representativeness and that no matter what is done, more could always be done.
Nevertheless, we want to report to readers what we undertook. Table 3 provides a summary of first authors by country and gender. Authors from 51 countries are represented; of these, however, 15 provided only one author. We will not comment on the numbers we achieved, though we know that others will.
In sharing the statistics with some colleagues, we received both applause and criticism, depending on the perspectives and standards of those who read them. We daresay that this will be the case generally.
Some Concluding Thoughts on Encyclopedias As editors-in-chief thinking on this enormous enterprise at the moment of its birth, we offer of few reflections. We have invested both commitment and perspiration in its production, so we naturally hope that it will have as much impact and age as gracefully as its two forerunners, Table 3. Both of these captured and reflected well the scientific accomplishments of their times, and many contributions to their pages endure to this day.
We hope that the editors of the next encyclopedia—sometime into the twenty-first century—will be able to say the same of ours. In saying this, however, we must call attention to two evident, changing—and historically unique—contexts in which these volumes appear.
In recent decades the number of new encyclopedias coming on the market has been increasing at a galloping rate, one that, moreover, shows no signs of slowing. We have no way of making an accurate count, but we discovered that site.
We can gaze into the future and imagine the appearance of an encyclopedia of encyclopedias!
In some respects this explosion reflects the reality of market opportunities for publishers. More important, however, it expresses the evident impulse to consolidate knowledge that is growing at increasing rates in magnitude, diversity, specialization, and fragmentation.
Despite this integrative thrust, most of the new encyclopedias are themselves quite specialized, covering only delineated subparts of disciplines and topical areas of inquiry. Elsevier Science itself, for instance, has published multivolume encyclopedias on clinical psychology one subfield among many in psychology and higher education a specialty within the study of education.
To underscore this point further, we report discovering such unexpected and unlikely titles as the Encyclopedia of Canadian Music, Encyclopedia of Celts, Panic Encyclopedia, and Alien Encyclopedia. Handbooks also show a tendency to cover more limited ranges of knowledge. We believe that we have marched against these trends.
These volumes represent our continuous effort to assemble the whole range of knowledge—vast and complex as it is—of the social and behavioral sciences in one place. Social cognition in infancy.
Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development [online]. Accessed July 26, Sommerville JA. Kavanaugh RD. Pretend play and theory of mind. Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues. Wellman HM, Banerjee M. Mind and emotion: Children's understanding of the emotional consequences of beliefs and desires.
British Journal of Developmental Psychology ;9 2 Toddlers' understanding of intentions, desires, and emotions: Explorations of the dark ages. Developing theories of intention: Social understanding and self control. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, ; Bartsch K, Wellman HM. Children talk about the mind.
Three-year-olds' difficulty with false belief: The case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology ;5 2 Gopnik A, Astington JW. Children's understanding of representational change and its relation to the understanding of false belief and the appearance-reality distinction.
Child Development ;59 1 The relation between children's and mothers' mental state language and theory-of-mind understanding. Child Development ;73 3 How parenting style affects false belief understanding.
Social Development ;8 3 McAlister A, Peterson C. A longitudinal study of child siblings and theory of mind development. Cognitive Development ;22 2 Youngblade LM, Dunn J: Individual differences in young children's pretend play with mother and sibling: Links to relationships and understanding of other people's feelings and beliefs.
Child Development ;66 5 Conversation and theory of mind: Do children talk their way to socio-cognitive understanding? British Journal of Developmental Psychology ;24 1 Nelson K.
Young minds in social worlds: Experience, meaning and memory. Language and theory of mind: Meta-analysis of the relation between language and false-belief understanding.
Child Development ;78 2 Interviews include questions that aid participants in speaking in depth about particular issues or experiences and can vary in their level of structure. Focus groups are group-level interviews. Usually, there are one or two moderators and several participants. Sampling is a critical issue in qualitative studies because the decision about who speaks about a phenomenon will have direct consequences on the findings. This makes them very useful for discovering and capturing important even if idiosyncratic details and generating theory.
When considering research methods both quantitative and qualitative in gender psychology, it is important to attend to the degree to which researchers assume that gender is a binary category and the degree to which the method and analyses reflect this assumption. Increasingly, researchers are attending to the ways in which they can capture the constructed, contested, and nonbinary aspects of gender.
Internet, phone, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: The tailored design method. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Ellsworth, P. Methods of research in social psychology 2nd ed. Howitt, D. Introduction to qualitative methods in psychology. Harlow, England: Prentice Hall.