Cell structure and function pdf


VIKASANA - BRIDGE - COURSE ➢ What is a cell? ➢ Cell theory. ➢ An overview of a cell. Chapter 3: CELL STRUCTURE & FUNCTION. Unit 1: CELL: THE. The Cell Structure and Function. The cell is the lowest level of structure capable of performing all the activities of life. The first cells were observed and named by. structure and its functions because of improved microscopes having high magnification. The Cell. Both, bricks in a building and cells in the living organisms.

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Cell Structure And Function Pdf

Cell Structure and Function. • All living organisms are made of cells. A cell is a small, membrane enclosed structure filled with an aqueous solution. A cell is chemical system that is able to maintain its structure Prokaryotic cell structure small, with a Membrane enclosed spaces allow cell functions to be. Cellular Organization (p). • Name the three main parts of a human cell. • Describe the structure and function of the plasma membrane. • Describe the.

Eukaryotic Cell: Structure and Function Introduction to eukaryotic cells By definition, eukaryotic cells are cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus, a structural feature that is not present in bacterial or archaeal cells. In addition to the nucleus, eukaryotic cells are characterized by numerous membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and others. In previous sections, we began to consider the Design Challenge of making cells larger than a small bacterium—more precisely, growing cells to sizes at which, in the eyes of natural selection, relying on diffusion of substances for transport through a highly viscous cytosol comes with inherent functional trade-offs that offset most selective benefits of getting larger. In the lectures and readings on bacterial cell structure, we discovered some morphological features of large bacteria that allow them to effectively overcome diffusion-limited size barriers e. As we transition our focus to eukaryotic cells, we want you to approach the study by constantly returning to the Design Challenge. We will cover a large number of subcellular structures that are unique to eukaryotes, and you will certainly be expected to know the names of these structures or organelles, to associate them with one or more "functions", and to identify them on a canonical cartoon representation of a eukaryotic cell. This memorization exercise is necessary but not sufficient. We will also ask you to start thinking a bit deeper about some of the functional and evolutionary costs and benefits trade-offs of both evolving eukaryotic cells and various eukaryotic organelles, as well as how a eukaryotic cell might coordinate the functions of different organelles.

Discovery of the cell Cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in after observing a piece of cork under a magnifying device.

Introduction: Cell Structure and Function

Hooke has coined the term cell. Number of cells Organisms made of only a single cell are called unicellular organisms. For example: Amoeba and Paramecium Single cell in these organisms performs all the basic functions such as digestion, respiration, and excretion. Organisms made up of more than one cells are called multicellular organisms.

For example: Humans, cow, rose In these organisms, the cells show division of labour as particular set of cells are involved in performing a specific body function. Shape of the cells Most of the cells have a definite shape. Some cells such as that in Amoeba have no definite shape.

The human red blood cell RBC is spherical-shaped. The muscle cells in humans are spindle-shaped. The human nerve cells have elongated branched structure.

In plants and bacteria, the cell is enclosed in a protective covering called cell wall, which gives shape and rigidity to the cells. Size of the cells The smallest cell is 0. The largest cell is of size mm mm, which is the egg of an ostrich. Size of a cell has no relation with the size of an organism.

Cell structure and functions In multicellular organisms, each organ system is made up of several organs. Organs are further made up of tissues. Tissues are groups of similar cells performing a specific function.

Cell - Structure and Functions.pdf

Components of the cell a Cell membrane A cell is composed of cell membrane cytoplasm and nucleus. The cytoplasm and nucleus enclosed in the cell membrane together constitute plasma membrane. Now the transport protein, or carrier, is ready to start the cycle again.

More ATP must be made by glycolysis and the Kreb's cycle. But, making ATP requires energy. The breakdown of glucose does release energy.

Eukaryotic Cell: Structure and Function - Biology LibreTexts

But, how, specifically, is the energy released in the breakdown of glucose used to make ATP? However, most of the ATP produced from glucose is derived from hydrogens that are released as glucose is metabolized.

The electrons are then passed, in a series of reactions driven by enzymes, from protein to protein and these proteins are located in the inner membrane of mitochondria in what is called the electron transport chain. As these electron transfer reactions occur, energy is released that is used to pump the hydrogen ions across that membrane and into the area between the two mitochondrial membranes.

This creates a concentration gradient that causes the hydrogen ions to pass back through the inner membrane and, specifically, through an enzyme called ATP synthase. Mitochondrial electron transport chain. The cellular metabolism of substrates such as glucose and fatty acids green arrows in the figure generates hydrogens and, specifically, hydrogen carriers — NADH and FADH2.

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