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Eur J Clin Nutr. The evidence Report National Institutes of Health. Obes Res. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Arq Bras Cardiol. J Hypertension.
Waist circumference and obesity-associated risk factors among whites in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: clinical action thresholds. Am J Clin Nutr. Misra A, Vikram NK.
Clinical and pathophysiological consequences of abdominal adiposity and abdominal adipose tissue depots. A total of pairs of mothers and children were considered eligible for this specific study, corresponding to households with children aged three years old or older, in which the WC measure was collected. Children's food intake was estimated using two h recalls, in interviews with the mother, one applied at each visit.
The median consumption of each macronutrient was used as a cutoff point for the analysis, taking into account the children's age 3 years, years and years to generate the variable.
This categorization includes the age groups for which the Institute of Medicine has specific recommendations for each nutrient according to the Dietary Reference Intake DRI , in an attempt to not underestimate or overestimate consumption.
WC was measured in duplicate using a cm inelastic metric tape, with measurement being standardized at the midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest, with the child or the mother in the standing position, without clothes covering the abdominal region; the reading was performed at expiration.
The proposal by Taylor et al. The socioeconomic assessment of families was carried out using the IBGE and PNDS questionnaires, which assess characteristics of households, schooling and income.
Descriptive statistical analysis of the sample was performed, stratified by the children's age group. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test was used to verify the goodness-of-fit. Overall, it was observed that Significant associations were observed between the variables of social stratification according to ABEP, car ownership, maternal work outside the home, maternal excess weight, and maternal total and central obesity Table 3.
This clinic is located in tive men and women. Central obesity is described as the presence of excess fat in the abdomen, out of proportion to total body fat, Recruitment for the study was carried out between having three compartments: Patients were excluded from dictor of risk factors and morbidity.
Nonetheless, waist circum- or tumors in the three months prior to recruitment; or ference is the most practical anthropometric measure- if they had gone through surgery such as liposuction ment for assessing abdominal fat. Out of patients invited to counts for each patient, performed by means of flow participate in the study, 27 refused refusal rate of cytometry, were obtained from their respective medi- 9.
Tests were performed no more than three from their medical records.
Likewise, the history of the prescribed antiret- roviral medication was obtained, and the total length Central obesity was defined as waist-to-hip ratio of protease inhibitor use in months was calculated.
Each participant was interviewed twice. A itor use. Once data was collected, food intake registered nutrients in calories it was estimated the change by 1 in the hour dietary recall was converted into en- unit.
Of individuals studied, the majority was male The average age was Questionnaire 1 collected data on personal identification, demographic and socio- The prevalence of central obesity was These variables CI: The prevalence of underweight was were self-reported information through the interview- greater among women than men, 7. Questionnaire 2 had to do with habitual spectively.
Women also showed higher prevalence of physical activity. It consisted of 16 questions as a central obesity and overweight when compared to Likert scale and covered physical activity of the last men Table 1.
The length of protease inhibi- cal activity. Other use.
Carbohydrate consumption showed negative as- selected characteristics are shown in Table 2. For every increase of 10 g of carbohydrates value adjusted for energy , The comparison of mean dietary intakes for patients the odds of central obesity decreased 0.
On the other hand, a significant higher risk of 3.
Patients with central obesity had mean carbohy- central obesity was observed with greater lipid in- drate intake significantly lower than those without take. For every increase of 10 g of lipids the odds central obesity The oppo- increased 1.
Considering the percent of en- site was observed for fat intake, which was greater ergy intake, for every increase of 1 unit of lipids the among those with central obesity There were no significant differences in pro- adjusting for control variables.
Redistribution of body fat has been increasingly rec- ognized among HIV-infected individuals, and espe- The results of the final logistic regression models for cially among those treated with protease inhibitors. Previous studies6,14 on pa- Table 2 - Population characteristics according to the presence of central obesity. In addition, it was noted that of abdominal fat deposition by means of waist-hip central obesity occurred more frequently in individu- ratio.
On the other hand, other studies total fat, and also significantly greater mean waist- that have evaluated HIV-infected patients did not find hip ratio, waist circumference and subscapular an association between the intake of these macro- skinfold, which are indicators of localized adiposity.
Individuals without central obesity presented greater This measurement is a parameter for evaluating lipo- mean energy intake per kg of body weight in the present dystrophy due to fat atrophy.
This difference was also observed in a case-con- trol study by Hendricks et al11 for investigating the The redistribution of body fat is known to be multifac- development of abdominal fat deposition in HIV-posi- Table 4 - Association of dietary factors with the presence of central obesity. Since both body weight and BMI were sig- morphological abnormalities resulting from the use of nificantly greater in the group with central obesity, it protease inhibitors, such as fat atrophy.