Ebook how to teach english by jeremy harmer


Jeremy Harmer - The Practice of English Language Teaching He's Not That Complicated™ PDF, eBook by Sabrina Alexis & Eric Charles. 78 Pages·· Jeremy Harmer how to teach english new edition r \I with DVD . Jeremy Harmer Cambridge, UK Introduction A friend of mine who is an orchestral conductor The vibration of are taught in a c o u rs e b o o k. these cords causes the voice to . This text is aimed for teachers at an early stage in their careers and for teachers preparing for examinations such as 'The Certificate in English.

Language:English, Spanish, Japanese
Genre:Science & Research
Published (Last):29.10.2015
Distribution:Free* [*Registration needed]
Uploaded by: ZACHARIAH

54090 downloads 108684 Views 22.43MB ePub Size Report

Ebook How To Teach English By Jeremy Harmer

How to Teach English is an easy-to-read, practical introduction to English Language Teaching, from the noted author and expert Jeremy Harmer. The book is an. Bl English as a Lingua Franca (ELF). B2 Teaching English in the age of ELF. B3 Native speaker varieties and other Englishes. B4 World English. How to Teach English book. Read 36 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. This is an introduction to the teaching of English. Its emphas.

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Nasr Mirza. Our aim is to build teachers' confidence, knowledge and classroom abilities - and inspire them to try out new ideas. As well as editing the How to

After teaching English as a Second Language for the past four years, I thought it was high time to read about all of the things I was doing wrong. I really appreciated Harmer's voice and knowledge of language learning. I have a more well-rounded understanding of language teaching with plenty more ideas to work with now. This was a wonderful book to read. Aug 13, Asma rated it liked it Shelves: Every once in a while I have to read an ESL-related book to brush on my teaching skills and this one was a well-written full of ideas for in class activities.

I liked it! It would've been better if the task-sheets came with the answer keys cause the way it's put I ended up skimming through them or maybe that was entirely my fault. Dec 19, Jennifer rated it really liked it Recommends it for: Learned some grammar and techniques for teaching English to non native speakers. Teaching writing, speaking, listening and reading were highlighted as well as lesson planning, dealing with difficult students, etc.

Very informative, easy to read, well laid out presentation. Included task questions to answer in the back after each chapter. Apr 17, Sulaiman rated it liked it. It's okay as a strart and for the busy teachers to refresh their memory of the basics of teaching English language.

It had a lot of useful information that will be handy to refer to in my teaching career. The language of this version is a little more complicated than the previous one , but yet it is useful and suitable for getting ready to teach English.

Jun 29, Julie rated it it was amazing. Valuable text for a good clear basis of English language learning. Sep 08, Vale Mar marked it as to-read. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Jun 03, Serap rated it it was amazing. Excellent resource! May 29, Sarapishniaz added it. Pretty good resource for the beginning teacher. Didn't really cover anything that wasn't also covered in the class I was reading this for, but a well-written introduction to the discipline.

View all 5 comments. Mar 25, Nicholas Powell rated it liked it. At best, somewhat useful. Not my favourite Harmer. Jun 11, Ehsan Mikaeili rated it it was amazing. The basic and comprehensive book for those who are interested in teaching English as a second Language.

Very basic summary of all the most important things to know when teaching English. There are some helpful tasks, but the glossary is a bit too simple. Apr 28, Hiba marked it as to-read. Please seperate Readers also enjoyed. About Jeremy Harmer. Jeremy Harmer. Other books in the series. Books by Jeremy Harmer. Trivia About How to Teach English. No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. Goodreads Librari Sitah As.

Samudra N Chandrasiri. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips.

How to Teach English - Jeremy Harmer - Google книги

Visibility Others can see my Clipboard. Cancel Save. Elementary students are no longer beginners and are able to communicate in a basic way. They can string some sentences together, construct a simple story, or take part in simple spoken interactions. Pre-intermediate students have not yet achieved intermediate competence, which involves greater fluency and general comprehension of some general authentic English. However, they have come across most of the basic structures and lexis of the language.

Upper-intermediate students, on the other hand, have the competence of intermediate students plus an extended knowledge of grammatical construction and skill use. However, they may not have achieved the accuracy or depth of knowledge which their advanced colleagues have acquired, and as a result are less able to operate at different levels of subtlety.

In recent years, the Council of Europe and the Association of Language Testers of Europe ALTE have been working to define language competency levels for learners of a num ber of different languages.

The following diagram shows the different levels in sequence: If they are at level BI, for example, how can their abilities be described? If we rem ind ourselves that terms such as beginner and intermediate are rough guides only in other words, unlike the ALTE levels, they do not say exactly what the students can do , then we are in a position to make broad generalisations about the different levels: Beginners Success is easy to see at this level, and easy for the teacher to arrange.

But then so is failure! Some adult beginners find that language learning is more stressful than they expected and reluctantly give up. However, if things are going well, teaching beginners can be incredibly stimulating. Intermediate students Success is less obvious at intermediate level. Intermediate students have already achieved a lot, but they are less likely to be able to recognise an almost daily progress.

We often call this the plateau effect, and the teacher has to make strenuous attempts to show students what they still need to learn w ithout being discouraging. One of the ways of doing this is to make the tasks we give them more challenging, and to get them to analyse language more thoroughly.

We need to help them set clear goals for themselves so that they have something to measure their achievement by. Advanced students Students at this level already know a lot of English. There is still the danger of the plateau effect even if the plateau itself is higher up!

In these areas, we can enable students to use language with more subtlety. Although many activities can clearly be used at more than one level designing newspaper front pages, writing radio commercials, etc , others are not so universally appropriate.


With beginners, for example, we will not suggest abstract discussions or the writing of discursive essays. For advanced students, a drill where students repeat in chorus and individually - see pages focusing on simple past tense questions will almost certainly be inappropriate. Beginners need to be exposed to fairly simple gram m ar and vocabulary which they can understand.

Intermediate students know all this language already and so we will not ask them to concentrate on it. At beginner levels, the need for us to rough-tune our speech see page 37 is very great: But at higher levels, such extreme behaviour is not so important.

Indeed, it will probably come across to the students as patronising. At all levels, teachers need to ascertain what students know before deciding what to focus on. At higher levels, we can use what the students already know as the basis for our work; at lower levels we will, for example, always try to elicit the language that is, try to get the language from the students rather than giving it to them we are going to focus on.

That way we know whether to continue with our plan or whether to amend it then and there because students, perhaps, know more than we expected. Educational and cultural background We have already discussed how students at different ages present different characteristics in the classroom.

Some children come from homes where education is highly valued, and where parental help is readily available. Other children, however, may come from less supportive backgrounds where no such backup is on offer.

Older students - especially adults - may come from a variety of backgrounds and, as a result, have very different expectations of what teaching and learning involves. Where students have different cultural backgrounds from the teacher or from each other, they may feel differently from their classmates about topics in the curriculum.

They may have different responses to classroom practices from the ones the teacher expected or the ones which the writers of the coursebook they are using had anticipated.

Some educational cultures find learning by rote memorising facts and figures more attractive than learning by doing where students are involved in project work and experimentation in order to arrive at knowledge. And it is worth remembering that even where students all live in the same town or area, it is often the case that they come from a variety of cultural backgrounds.

In many English-speaking countries such as Britain, the US, Australia, etc, multilingual classes classes where students come from different countries and therefore have different mother tongues are the norm, especially in private language schools. As a result, students are likely to represent a range of educational and cultural backgrounds. As teachers, we need to be sensitive to these different backgrounds.

We need to be able to explain what we are doing and why; we need to use material, offer topics and employ teaching techniques which, even when engaging and challenging, will not offend anyone in the group.

Where possible, we need to be able to offer different material, topics and teaching techniques at different times to suit the different individual expectations and tastes. The importance of student motivation A variety of factors can create a desire to learn. Perhaps the learners love the subject they have chosen, or maybe they are simply interested in seeing what it is like.

Perhaps, as with young children, they just happen to be curious about everything, including learning. Some students have a practical reason for their study: This desire to achieve some goal is the bedrock of motivation and, if it is strong enough, it provokes a decision to act. For an adult this may involve enrolling in an English class. For a teenager it may be choosing one subject over another for special study. This kind of motivation - which comes from outside the classroom and may be influenced by a num ber of external factors such as the attitude of society, family and peers to the subject in question - is often referred to as extrinsic motivation, the motivation that students bring into the classroom from outside.

While it may be relatively easy to be extrinsically motivated that is to have a desire to do something , sustaining that motivation can be more problematic. As students we can become bored, or we may find the subject more difficult than we thought it was going to be.

We can do this in a num ber of ways. The activities we ask students to take part in will, if they involve the students or excite their curiosity - and provoke their participation - help them to stay interested in the subject.

We need, as well, to select an appropriate level of challenge so that things are neither too difficult nor too easy. We need to display appropriate teacher qualities so that students can have confidence in our abilities and professionalism see Chapter 2. Students need to feel that the teacher really cares about them; if students feel supported and valued, they are far more likely to be motivated to learn. If students feel they have some influence over what is happening, rather than always being told exactly what to do, they are often more motivated to take part in the lesson.

But however much we do to foster and sustain student motivation, we can only, in the end, encourage by word and deed, offering our support and guidance. Real motivation comes from within each individual, from the students themselves.

Responsibility for learning If giving students agency is seen as a key component in sustaining motivation, then such agency is not just about giving students more decision-making power. It is also about encouraging them to take more responsibility for their own learning. We need to tell them that unless they are prepared to take some of the strain, their learning is likely to be less successful than if they themselves become active learners rather than passive recipients of teaching.

In such cases, teachers will not be successful if they merely try to impose a pattern of learner autonomy. At first we will expect them, for example, to make their own dialogues after they have listened to a model on an audio track.

Such standard practice getting students to try out new language is one small way of encouraging student involvement in learning. We might go on to try to get individual students to investigate a grammar issue or solve a reading puzzle on their own, rather than having things explained to them by the teacher.

How To Teach English

We might get them to look for the meanings of words and how they are used in their dictionaries see below rather than telling them what the words mean. Getting students to do various kinds of homework, such as written exercises, compositions or further study is one of the best ways to encourage student autonomy.

W hat is im portant is that teachers should choose the right kind of task for the students. It should be within their grasp, and not take up too much of their time - or occupy too little of it by being trivial.

Even more im portantly than this, teachers should follow up homework when they say they are going to, imposing the same deadlines upon themselves as they do on their students. Other ways of prom oting student self-reliance include having them read for pleasure in their own time see pages and find their own resources for language practice in books or on the Internet, for example.

At earlier stages of learning, good bilingual dictionaries serve the same function and allow the students a large measure of independence from the teacher. We will help students to be responsible for their learning if we show them where either in books, in self-access centres or online they can continue studying outside the classroom. For example, we can point them in the direction of suitable websites if they have computer access , or recommend good CD or DVD resources. If students are lucky, their institution will have a self-access centre with a range of resources comprising books including readers - see page , newspapers, magazines, worksheets, listening material, videos and DVDs, and computers with access to the Internet.

Students can decide if and when to visit such centres and what they want to do there. Self-access centres should help students to make appropriate choices by having good cataloguing systems and ensuring that people are on hand to help students find their way around.

However, the object of a self-access centre is that students should themselves take responsibility for what they do and make their own decisions about what is most appropriate for them. O f course, many schools do not have self-access centres, and even where they do, many students do not make full use of them.

This is because not all students, as we have said, are equally capable of being or wanting to be autonom ous learners. Despite this fact, we should do our best to encourage them to have agency without forcing it upon them. Conclusions In this chapter we have: But generally they find it quite hard to say why certain teachers struck them as special. Perhaps it was because of their personality. Possibly it was because they had interesting things to say. Sometimes, it seems, it was just because the teacher was a fascinating person!

One of the reasons that it is difficult to give general descriptions of good teachers is that different teachers are often successful in different ways. Some teachers are more extrovert or introvert than others, for example, and different teachers have different strengths and weaknesses. A lot will depend, too, on how students view individual teachers and here again, not all students will share the same opinions.

But there are also others, perhaps, who do not have what appears to be a natural gift but who are still effective and popular teachers.

Such teachers learn their craft through a mixture of personality, intelligence, knowledge and experience and how they reflect on it. It is true that some lessons and students can be difficult and stressful at times, but it is also worth remembering that at its best teaching can also be extremely enjoyable.

In this chapter we will look at what is necessary for effective teaching and how that can help to provoke success - so that for both students and teachers learning English can be rewarding and enjoyable. They take note, either consciously or subconsciously, of whether we are always the same or whether we can be flexible, depending on what is happening at a particular point in the lesson.

As we have said, teachers, like any other group of hum an beings, have individual differences. However, one of the things, perhaps, that differentiates us from some other professions, is that we become different people, in a way, when we are in front of a class from the people we are in other situations, such as at home or at a party. Everyone switches roles like this in their daily lives to some extent, but for teachers, who we are or appear to be when we are at work is especially important.

Personality Some years ago, in preparation for a presentation to colleagues, I recorded interviews with a large num ber of teachers and students.

Effective teacher personality is a blend between who we really are, and who we are as teachers. We have to be able to present a professional face to the students which they find both interesting and effective. When we walk into the classroom, we want them to see someone who looks like a teacher whatever else they look like.

How to Teach English

This does not mean conforming to some kind of teacher stereotype, but rather finding, each in our own way, a persona that we adopt when we cross the threshold. We need to ask ourselves what kind of personality we want our students to encounter, and the decisions we take before and during lessons should help to demonstrate that personality.

This is not to suggest that we are in any way dishonest about who we are - teaching is not acting, after all - but we do need to think carefully about how we appear. Adaptability W hat often marks one teacher out from another is how they react to different events in the classroom as the lesson proceeds.

This is im portant, because however well we have prepared, the chances are that things will not go exactly to plan. We will discuss such magic moments and unforeseen problems on page This is especially im portant when the learning outcomes we had planned for look as if they may not succeed because of what is happening. We have to be flexible enough to work with this and change our destination accordingly if this has to be done or find some other way to get there. Or perhaps we have to take a decision to continue what we are doing despite the interruption to the way we imagined things were going to proceed.

When students see that they can do this, their confidence in their teachers is greatly enhanced. If, for example, the teacher always acts as a controller, standing at the front of the class, dictating everything that happens and being the focus of attention, there will be little chance for students to take much responsibility for their own learning, in other words, for them to have agency see page Being a controller may work for grammar explanations and other information presentation, for instance, but it is less effective for activities where students are working together cooperatively on a project, for example.

In such situations we may need to be prompters, encouraging students, pushing them to achieve more, feeding in a bit of information or language to help them proceed.

At other times, we may need to act as feedback providers helping students to evaluate their performance or as assessors telling students how well they have done or giving them grades, etc. We also need to be able to function as a resource for language information, etc when students need to consult us and, at times, as a language tutor that is, an advisor who responds to what the student is doing and advises them on what to do next. The way we act when we are controlling a class is very different from the listening and advising behaviour we will exhibit when we are tutoring students or responding to a presentation or a piece of writing something that is different, again, from the way we assess a piece of work.

Part of our teacher personality, therefore, is our ability to perform all these roles at different times, but with the same care and ease whichever role we are involved with.

This flexibility will help us to facilitate the many different stages and facets of learning. Rapport A significant feature in the intrinsic motivation of students see page 20 will depend on their perception of what the teacher thinks of them, and how they are treated. Rapport means, in essence, the relationship that the students have with the teacher, and vice versa. In the best lessons we will always see a positive, enjoyable and respectful relationship.

Rapport is established in part when students become aware of our professionalism see above , but it also occurs as a result of the way we listen to and treat the students in our classrooms. In the first place, students want teachers to know their names rather than, say, just pointing at them. But this is extremely difficult for teachers who see eight or nine groups a week. How can they remember all their students?

One m ethod is to ask the students at least in the first week or two to put name cards on the desk in front of them or stick name badges on to their sweaters or jackets. We can also draw up a seating plan and ask students always to sit in the same place until we have learnt their names. Many teachers use the register to make notes about individual students Do they wear glasses?

Are they tall? We need, therefore, to find ways of doing this that suit us best. At any age, they will be pleased when they realise that their teacher has remembered things about them, and has some understanding of who they are. Listening to students Students respond very well to teachers who listen to them.

But we need to listen properly to students in lessons too. And we need to show that we are interested in what they have to say. Respecting students One student I interviewed had absolutely no doubt about the key quality of good teachers. Correcting students see page 97 is always a delicate event. The problem we face, however, is that while some students are happy to be corrected robustly, others need more support and positive reinforcement.

In speaking activities see Chapter 9 , some students want to be corrected the m om ent they make any mistake, whereas others would like to be corrected later.

In other words, just as students have different learning styles and intelligences, so, too, they have different preferences when it comes to being corrected. But whichever method of correction we choose, and whoever we are working with, students need to know that we are treating them with respect, and not using mockery or sarcasm - or expressing despair at their efforts!

Respect is vital, too, when we deal with any kind of problem behaviour.

We could, of course, respond to indiscipline or awkwardness by being biting in our criticism of the student who has done something we do not approve of. Yet this will be counterproductive. It is the behaviour we want to criticise, not the character of the student in question.

Teachers who respect students do their best to see them in a positive light. They are not negative about their learners or in the way they deal with them in class. They do not react with anger or ridicule when students do unplanned things, but instead use a respectful professionalism to solve the problem. Being even-handed Most teachers have some students that they like more than others. For example, we all tend to react well to those who take part, are cheerful and cooperative, take responsibility for their own learning, and do what we ask of them w ithout complaint.

Sometimes we are less enthusiastic about those who are less forthcoming, and who find learner autonomy, for example, more of a challenge. The reasons that some students are not forthcoming may be many and varied, ranging from shyness to their cultural or family backgrounds. Sometimes students are reluctant to take part overtly because of other stronger characters in the group. And these quiet students will only be negatively affected when they see far more attention being paid to their more robust classmates.

At the same time, giving some students more attention than others may make those students more difficult to deal with later since they will come to expect special treatment, and may take our interest as a licence to become overdominant in the classroom. Treating all students equally not only helps to establish and maintain rapport, but is also a m ark of professionalism.

As professionals we are also asked to perform certain tasks. Part of this preparation resides in the knowledge they have of their subject and the skill of teaching, something we will discuss in detail on pages But another feature of being well-prepared is having thought in advance of what we are going to do in our lessons. As we walk towards our classroom, in other words, we need to have some idea of what the students are going to achieve in the lesson; we should have some learning outcomes in our head.

O f course, what happens in a lesson does not always conform to our plans for it, as we shall discuss on pages , but students always take comfort from the perception that their teacher has thought about what will be appropriate for their particular class on that particular day. The degree to which we plan our lessons differs from teacher to teacher. It will often depend, among other things, on whether we have taught this lesson or something like it before. We will discuss planning in detail in Chapter Keeping records Many teachers find the administrative features of their job taking the register, filling forms, writing report cards irksome, yet such record keeping is a necessary adjunct to the classroom experience.

There is one particularly good reason for keeping a record of what we have taught. It works as a way of looking back at what we have done in order to decide what to do next.

It is im portant for professional teachers to try to evaluate how successful an activity has been in terms of student engagement and learning outcomes. If we do this, we will start to amend our teaching practice in the light of experience, rather than getting stuck in sterile routines.

It is one of the characteristics of good teachers that they are constantly changing and developing their teaching practice as a result of reflecting on their teaching experiences.

Being reliable Professional teachers are reliable about things like timekeeping and homework. It is very difficult to berate students for being late for lessons if we get into the habit for whatever reason of turning up late ourselves.

It is unsatisfactory to insist on the prom pt delivery of homework if it takes us weeks to correct it and give it back. Teacher skills As we have suggested, who we are and the way we interact with our students are vital components in successful teaching, as are the tasks which we are obliged to undertake. But these will not make us effective teachers unless we possess certain teacher skills.

Managing classes Effective teachers see classroom management as a separate aspect of their skill. We will know how to put students into groups, or when to start and finish an activity. We will have worked out what kinds of instructions to give, and what order to do things in.

We will have decided whether students should work in groups, in pairs or as a whole class. We will have considered whether we want to move them around the class, or move the chairs into a different seating pattern see pages We will discuss classroom management in more detail in Chapter 3.

Successful class management also involves being able to prevent disruptive behaviour and reacting to it effectively when it occurs see pages Matching tasks and groups Students will learn more successfully if they enjoy the activities they are involved in and are interested or stimulated by the topics we or they bring into the classroom.

But even in such situations there is a lot we can do to make sure we cater for the range of needs and interests of the students in our classes see pages Many teachers have the unsettling experience of using an activity with, say, two or three groups and having considerable success only to find that it completely fails in the next class.

However, what such experiences clearly suggest is that we need to think carefully about matching activities and topics to the different groups we teach. Whereas, for example, some groups seem happy to work creatively on their own, others need more help and guidance.

Where some students respond well to teacher presentation with the teacher acting as a controller , others are much happier when they investigate language issues on their own. Variety Good teachers vary activities and topics over a period of time. The best activity type will be less motivating the sixth time we ask the students to take part in it than it was when they first came across it.

Much of the value of an activity, in other words, resides in its freshness. But even where we use the same activity types for some reason because the curriculum expects this or because it is a feature of the materials we are using , it is im portant to try to ensure that learner roles are not always the same.

Sometimes they might compare answers in pairs; sometimes they might interview each other about the text; sometimes they m ight do all the work on their own.

Variety works within lessons, too. It is not just children who can become bored by doing the same thing all the time. However, we might make a different kind of activity, such as a role-play, last for longer than this. A lot depends on exactly what we are asking students to do. We will discuss ways of using and adapting coursebooks in more detail in Chapter Destinations W hen we take learning activities into the classroom, we need to persuade our students of their usefulness. Good activities should have some kind of destination or learning outcome, and it is the job of the teacher to make this destination apparent.

Students need to have an idea of where they are going, and more importantly, to recognise when they have got there. Nevertheless, even in such circumstances, it will be helpful if we can make sure that students leave the class with some tangible result. That is why a summing-up, or feedback session at the end of a discussion, for example, is so valuable. Teacher knowledge Apart from the ability to create and foster good teacher-student rapport and the possession of skills necessary for organising successful lessons, teachers need to know a lot about the subject they are teaching the English language.

They will need to know what equipment is available in their school and how to use it. They need to know what materials are available for teachers and students. They should also do their best to keep abreast of new developments in teaching approaches and techniques by consulting a range of print material, online resources, and by attending, where possible, development sessions and teacher seminars. The language system Language teachers need to know how the language works.

This means having a knowledge of the grammar system and understanding the lexical system: They need to be aware of pronunciation features such as sounds, stress and intonation.

These different features of the language system are explained in Chapter 5. Students have a right to expect that teachers of the English language can explain straightforward gram m ar concepts, including how and when they are used. They expect their teachers to know the difference between the colloquial language that people use in informal conversation and the more formal language required in more formal settings. They also expect teachers to be able to demonstrate and help them to pronounce words correctly and with appropriate intonation.

W hen students have doubts about the language, they frequently ask their teachers to explain things. But at other times the issue is one of great complexity and even the most experienced teacher will have difficulty giving an instant answer.

In other words, our knowledge of the language system may not be adequate for certain kinds of on-the-spot questions about subtleties. Moreover, sometimes the question is not especially relevant - it is a distraction from what is going on in the lesson. But you can find the answer yourself if you go to this book. Students will realise that these answers are perfectly appropriate when the teacher does indeed return for the next lesson with the information that they have promised.

Materials and resources When students ask the kind of complicated questions m entioned above, good teachers know where to find the answers. We need, in other words, to know about books and websites where such technical information is available. No one expects teachers to be all-knowing in this respect: If teachers are using a coursebook, students expect them, of course, to know how the materials work.

Their confidence will be greatly enhanced if they can see that the teacher has looked at the material they are using before the lesson, and has worked out a way of dealing with it. Classroom equipment Over the last few decades the growth in different types of classroom equipment has been incredible. Once upon a time we only had pens, board and chalk to work with.

But then along came the tape recorder, the language laboratory, video machines, the overhead projector, computers, data projectors and interactive whiteboards these are all described in Appendix A on page Some teachers are more comfortable with these various pieces of educational technology than others. This will always be the case. There is no reason why everyone should be equally proficient at everything.

However, students will expect that teachers should know how to use the equipm ent that they have elected to use. Learning how to use various types of equipment is a major part of m odern teacher training. However, we should do everything in our power to avoid being overzealous about the equipm ent itself. It is only worth using if it can do things that other equipment or routines cannot.

The essentials of good teaching - i. W hat has changed recently, though, is that students can do things they were unable to do before thanks to technical innovation. Thus m odern podcasts downloadable listening which can be played on individual MP3 players give students many more listening opportunities than ever before.

They can burn CDs with examples of their work and the materials used in class to take home when a course has finished. They can search for a wide range of language and information resources in a way that would have been impossible a few years ago. As teachers, we need to do everything we can to keep abreast of technological change in educational resources.

But we should never let technology drive our decisions about teaching and learning. We should, instead, decide what our learners want to achieve and only then see what kind of techniques and technology will help them to do this. Keeping up-to-date Teachers need to know how to use a variety of activities in the classroom, of course, but they also need to be constantly finding out about new ways of doing things.

There is now a wealth of information about teaching on the Internet, too. Magazines, books and websites often contain good descriptions of new activities and how to use them. In the first place, it is difficult for newly qualified teachers to keep everything in their heads at the same time as they struggle with the demands of a new job.