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English Grammar Lessons. Feel free to download, re-use, or share the following English grammar lessons with your friends, colleagues, or students. To view the. The latter chapters then address specific aspects of the English language . This book attempts to describe some of the basic grammatical characteristics of the To complete the picture, it should also be pointed out that. This up-to-date, descriptive grammar is a complete course for first . book for new generations of advanced students of English, but also as a.

This group contains both count army, group, class, etc. Often a special group noun is used with names of certain kinds of objects: an army of soldiers, a crowd of people, a herd of cattle, a flock of sheep, a crew of sailors, a gang of thieves, etc. Collective nouns fall under the following sub-groups. Nouns used in the singular only denoting a number of things collected together and regarded as a single object: machinery, foli- age, jewellery jewelry AmE , etc. They take singular pronoun substi- tutes and the verb of a sentence is in the singular: The autumn foliage is beautiful. Machinery new to the industry in Australia was introduced for cultivating land. Nouns which are singular in form though plural in meaning un- marked plurals : cattle, folk, people, police, poultry, vermin. These nouns take plural pronoun substitutes and occur with a plural verb: These cattle are on the way to the market. The poultry are in the yard. Vermin are harmful animals or insects. Reference to individual members of the group is made thus: a hundred head of cattle, twenty police or twenty policemen, fifty people. It should be noted that people is normally not a group noun but the plural of person; when used in the sense of nation, it takes a regular plural: the peoples of the world. With other proper names ending in -s there is vacillation both in pronunciation and spelling, but most commonly the spelling is the apostrophe only while the pronunciation is [iz]. With compounds, the inflection -s is added to the final element: my brother-in-laws children, my brothers-in-laws children.

Modifiers are enclosed in brackets. An object is put on the line below, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line. A complement is put on the line above, and is connected with the verb by a diagonal line. Analyse the sentences in each of the following extracts, using the graphic method explained above.

Classify the sentences in the following extracts : 1. Tom came upon the juvenile pariah of the village, Huckleberry Finn.

Huckleberry was cordially dreaded by all the mothers of the town, because he was idle, lawless, vulgar, and bad.

Besides, all their children admired him so, and delighted in his forbidden society, and wished they dared to be like him. So he played with him every time he got a chance. Huckleberry was always dressed in the cast-off clothes of full-grown men, and they were His hat was a in perennial bloom and fluttering with rags.

His coat, when he wore one, hung nearly to his heels, and had the rearward buttons far down the back. But one suspender supported his trousers.

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The fringed legs of his trousers dragged in the dirt when not rolled up. Huckleberry came and went at He slept on door-steps in fine weather, his own sweet will. He did not have to go to school or to church, or call any being master, or obey anybody. He could go fishing or swimming when he chose, and could stay as long as he liked.

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For example, if I is one of two or more subjects, it could lead to this odd sentence: Awkward: Neither she, my friends, nor I am going to the festival.

If possible, it's best to reword such grammatically correct but awkward sentences. Better: Neither she, I, nor my friends are going to the festival. OR She, my friends, and I are not going to the festival. Rule 4.

As a general rule, use a plural verb with two or more subjects when they are connected by and. Example: A car and a bike are my means of transportation. But note these exceptions: Breaking and entering is against the law. The bed and breakfast was charming. In those sentences, breaking and entering and bed and breakfast are compound nouns. Rule 5.

Use a singular verb with distances, periods of time, sums of money, etc.

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Examples: Three miles is too far to walk. Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense. Ten dollars is a high price to pay. BUT Ten dollars i. Rule 6. With words that indicate portions—e.

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If the noun after of is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb. Examples: A lot of the pie has disappeared. A lot of the pies have disappeared. A third of the city is unemployed. A third of the people are unemployed. All of the pie is gone. All of the pies are gone. Some of the pie is missing. Some of the pies are missing.

Rule 7. With collective nouns such as group, jury, family, audience, population, the verb might be singular or plural, depending on the writer's intent. Examples: All of my family has arrived OR have arrived. Most of the jury is here OR are here.

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