Grammar for english language teachers pdf


 

Grammar fo English Language Teachers - usaascvb.info __Facts__s( zlibraryexau2g3p_onion).pdf. The Grammar of English Grammars - ESL Teachers Board. Functional English Grammar: An Introduction for Second Language Teachers ( Cambridge Language Education). Read more. Grammar for English Language Teachers_Martin Parrot - Ebook download as Jeremy Harmer - The Practice of English Language Teaching - 4th usaascvb.info

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Grammar For English Language Teachers Pdf

in this web service Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. - Grammar for English Language Teachers, Second Edition. usaascvb.info - download Grammar for English Language Teachers book online at best prices in India on usaascvb.info Read Grammar for English Language Teachers. Grammar for English Language Teachers is an ideal reference guide for experienced and trainee teachers who are developing their knowledge of English.

Thanks The following people have all provided me with either support during the writing of this book or with data that I have used in the examples of spoken English. My thanks to all of you and to anyone I have forgotten to mention here. My special thanks go to the eagle-eyed Helen Forrest, whose rigour and professionalism as an editor have contributed much to the improvements in this edition. Acknowledgments The authors and publishers are grateful to the following for permission to use copyright material in Grammar for English Language Teachers 2nd Edition. All efforts have been made to contact the copyright holders of material belonging to third parties, and citations are given for the sources. We welcome approaches from any copyright holders whom we have not been able to trace or contact, but who find that their material has been reproduced herein. All rights reserved. Ben Pimlott

Progressive and perfect progressive forms add complexity. See English verbs. Functions of auxiliaries — Learners of English tend to find it difficult to manipulate the various ways in which English uses auxiliary verbs.

These include negation e. He hasn't been drinking. Has he been drinking? Yes, he has. Modal verbs — English has several modal auxiliary verbs , which each has a number of uses. These verbs convey a special sense or mood such as obligation, necessity, ability, probability, permission, possibility, prohibition, intention etc. These include "must", "can", "have to", "need to", "will", "shall", "ought to", "will have to", "may", and "might".

For example, the opposite of "You must be here at 8" obligation is usually "You don't have to be here at 8" lack of obligation, choice. This complexity takes considerable work for most English language learners to master. All these modal verbs or "modals" take the first form of the verb after them. These modals most of them do not have past or future inflection, i. Idiomatic usage — English is reputed to have a relatively high degree of idiomatic usage.

Another example is the idiomatic distinction between "make" and "do": "make a mistake", not "do a mistake"; and "do a favor", not "make a favor".

Articles — English has two forms of article : the the definite article and a and an the indefinite article. In addition, at times English nouns can or indeed must be used without an article; this is called the zero article. Some of the differences between definite, indefinite and zero article are fairly easy to learn, but others are not, particularly since a learner's native language may lack articles, have only one form, or use them differently from English.

Although the information conveyed by articles is rarely essential for communication, English uses them frequently several times in the average sentence so that they require some effort from the learner. Vocabulary[ edit ] Phrasal verbs — Phrasal verbs also known as multiple-word verbs in English can cause difficulties for many learners because of their syntactic pattern and because they often have several meanings. There are also a number of phrasal verb differences between American and British English.

For example, the prepositions "on" rely on, fall on , "of" think of, because of, in the vicinity of , and "at" turn at, meet at, start at are used in so many different ways and contexts, it is very difficult to remember the exact meaning for each one. When translating back to the ESL learners' respective L1, a particular preposition's translation may be correct in one instance, but when using the preposition in another sense, the meaning is sometimes quite different.

Min is the Arabic word for "from", so it means one "from" my friends. Word formation — Word formation in English requires a lot of rote learning.

Grammar for English Language Teachers 2nd: usaascvb.info: Martin Parrott: Libros en idiomas extranjeros

For example, an adjective can be negated by using the prefixes un- e. Size of lexicon — The history of English has resulted in a very large vocabulary, including one stream from Old English and one from the Norman infusion of Latin -derived terms.

One estimate of the lexicon puts English at around , unique words. This requires more work for a learner to master the language.

Collocations — Collocation in English refers to the tendency for words to occur together with others. Native speakers tend to use chunks[ clarification needed ] of collocations and ESL learners make mistakes with collocations. Slang and colloquialisms — In most native English-speaking countries, large numbers of slang and colloquial terms are used in everyday speech.

Many learners may find that classroom based English is significantly different from how English is usually spoken in practice.

This can often be difficult and confusing for learners with little experience of using English in Anglophone countries. Also, slang terms differ greatly between different regions and can change quickly in response to popular culture.

Some phrases can become unintentionally rude if misused. The common usage of silent letters can throw off how ESL learners interpret the language especially those who are fluent in a Germanic language , since a common step to learning words in most languages is to pronounce them phonetically. Words such as Queue, Colonel, Knight and Wednesday tend to throw off the learner, since they contain large amounts of silent letters. First-language literacy[ edit ] Learners who have had less than eight years of formal education in their first language are sometimes called adult ESL literacy learners.

Usually these learners have had their first-language education interrupted.

Grammar for English Language Teachers

For example, these learners may lack study skills and transferable language skills, [17] [18] and these learners may avoid reading or writing. Joann Crandall [24] has pointed out that most teacher training programs for TESOL instructors do not include sufficient, in most cases "no", training for the instruction in literacy.

This is a gap that many scholars feel needs to be addressed. Social and academic language acquisition[ edit ] Basic interpersonal communication skills BICS are language skills needed in social situations. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years. Cognitive academic language proficiency CALP refers to the language associated with formal content material and academic learning.

These skills usually take from five to seven years to develop.

As with most languages, written language tends to use a more formal register than spoken language. Spelling and pronunciation: probably the biggest difficulty for non-native speakers, since the relation between English spelling and pronunciation does not follow the alphabetic principle consistently. Because of the many changes in pronunciation which have occurred since a written standard developed, the retention of many historical idiosyncrasies in spelling , and the large influx of foreign words mainly from Norman French , Classical Latin and Greek with different and overlapping spelling patterns, [27] English spelling and pronunciation are difficult even for native speakers to master.

This difficulty is shown in such activities as spelling bees. The generalizations that exist are quite complex and there are many exceptions, leading to a considerable amount of rote learning. The spelling and pronunciation system causes problems in both directions: a learner may know a word by sound but be unable to write it correctly or indeed find it in a dictionary or they may see a word written but not know how to pronounce it or mislearn the pronunciation.

Supporters for the former think that using speech as the way to explain meaning is more important. However, supporters of the latter do not agree with that and instead think that grammar and correct habit is more important. Technology[ edit ] Language has a very significant role in our lives.

It symbolizes the cultures in our societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate between each other. The development of transportation has influenced global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests. However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships.

Grammar for English language Teachers pdf

In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly. Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible. Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially for those who come with certain financial issues. The most common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to take some ESL classes.

There are many steps that need to be followed in order to be successful in this aspect. However, the use of new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable and productive. Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike. Studies have shown that one of the best ways of improving one's learning ability is to use a computer where all the information one might need can be found.

In today's developed world , a computer is one of a number of systems which help learners to improve their language. It provides a stress-free environment for learners and makes them more responsible.

As with most languages, written language tends to use a more formal register than spoken language. Spelling and pronunciation: probably the biggest difficulty for non-native speakers, since the relation between English spelling and pronunciation does not follow the alphabetic principle consistently. Because of the many changes in pronunciation which have occurred since a written standard developed, the retention of many historical idiosyncrasies in spelling , and the large influx of foreign words mainly from Norman French , Classical Latin and Greek with different and overlapping spelling patterns, [27] English spelling and pronunciation are difficult even for native speakers to master.

This difficulty is shown in such activities as spelling bees. The generalizations that exist are quite complex and there are many exceptions, leading to a considerable amount of rote learning.

The spelling and pronunciation system causes problems in both directions: a learner may know a word by sound but be unable to write it correctly or indeed find it in a dictionary or they may see a word written but not know how to pronounce it or mislearn the pronunciation. Supporters for the former think that using speech as the way to explain meaning is more important. However, supporters of the latter do not agree with that and instead think that grammar and correct habit is more important.

Technology[ edit ] Language has a very significant role in our lives.

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It symbolizes the cultures in our societies where individuals interact and use it to communicate between each other. The development of transportation has influenced global relations to be more practical where people need to interact and share common interests. However, communication is the key power to facilitate interactions among individuals which would provide them with stronger relationships.

In places like the United States where immigration plays a role in social, economic and cultural aspects, there is an increase in the number of new immigrants yearly. Therefore, society forces them to improve their communication skills as soon as possible.

Immigrants cannot afford to waste time learning to speak English especially for those who come with certain financial issues. The most common choice people make to build up their communication skills is to take some ESL classes. There are many steps that need to be followed in order to be successful in this aspect.

However, the use of new technology makes the learning process more convenient, reliable and productive. Computers have made an entry into education in the past decades and have brought significant benefits to teachers and students alike. Studies have shown that one of the best ways of improving one's learning ability is to use a computer where all the information one might need can be found.

In today's developed world , a computer is one of a number of systems which help learners to improve their language. It provides a stress-free environment for learners and makes them more responsible. The computer can be used to test students about the language they already learn. It can assist them in practicing certain tasks. The computer permits students to communicate easily with other students in different places. For instance, blogs can allow English learners to voice their opinions, sharpen their writing skills and build their confidence.

However, some who are introverted may not feel comfortable sharing their ideas on the blog. Class wikis can be used to promote collaborative learning through sharing and co-constructing knowledge. The learning ability of language learners can be more reliable with the influence of a dictionary. Learners tend to carry or are required to have a dictionary which allows them to learn independently and become more responsible for their own work.

In these modern days, education has upgraded its methods of teaching and learning with dictionaries where digital materials are being applied as tools. Most of them contain native-language equivalents and explanations, as well as definitions and example sentences in English. They can speak the English word to the learner, and they are easy to carry around.

However, they are expensive and easy to lose, so students are often instructed to put their names on them. The numerous communities of English native speakers in countries all over the world also have some noticeable differences like Irish English , Australian English , Canadian English , Newfoundland English , etc. For instance, following are words that only make meaning in originating culture: Toad in the hole , Gulab jamun , Spotted Dick , etc.

Attempts have been made to regulate English to an inclination of a class or to a specific style of a community by John Dryden and others. Teaching English therefore involves not only helping the student to use the form of English most suitable for their purposes, but also exposure to regional forms and cultural styles so that the student will be able to discern meaning even when the words, grammar, or pronunciation are different from the form of English they are being taught to speak.

Some professionals in the field have recommended incorporating information about non-standard forms of English in ESL programs. For example, in advocating for classroom-based instruction in African-American English also known as Ebonics , linguist Richard McDorman has argued, "Simply put, the ESL syllabus must break free of the longstanding intellectual imperiousness of the standard to embrace instruction that encompasses the many "Englishes" that learners will encounter and thereby achieve the culturally responsive pedagogy so often advocated by leaders in the field.

Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students have to prove their language skills, when being a native speaker in no way guarantees college level academic literacy.

The National Center for Education Statistics NCES in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is Schools that risk losing funding, closing, or having their principals fired if test scores are not high enough begin to view students that do not perform well on standardized tests as liabilities. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school.

In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. This results in many ESL students not having the correct credits to apply for college, or enrolling in summer school to finish the required courses.

Those that don't place high enough on college placement exams often have to enroll in ESL courses at their universities. In addition, while many ESL students receive a Pell Grant , the maximum grant for the year — covered only about a third of the cost of college.

Some ESL students avoid interactions with native speakers because of their frustration or embarrassment at their poor English. Immigrant students often also lack knowledge of popular culture , which limits their conversations with native speakers to academic topics.

In most mainstream classrooms, teacher-led discussion is the most common form of lesson. In this setting, some ESL students will fail to participate, and often have difficulty understanding teachers because they talk too fast, do not use visual aids, or use native colloquialisms.

ESL students also have trouble getting involved with extracurricular activities with native speakers for similar reasons. Students fail to join extra-curricular activities because of the language barrier , cultural emphasis of academics over other activities, or failure to understand traditional pastimes in their new country.

Having class among other students learning English as a second language relieves the pressure of making mistakes when speaking in class or to peers.

ESL programs also allow students to be among others who appreciate their native language and culture , the expression of which is often not supported or encouraged in mainstream settings. ESL programs also allow students to meet and form friendships with other non-native speakers from different cultures, promoting racial tolerance and multiculturalism.

The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingual tutors are given the class material in order to provide tutoring to their assigned ESL tutee.

Once the tutor has had the chance to help the student, classmates get to switch roles in order to give both peers an opportunity to learn from each other. In a study, which conducted a similar research, their results indicated that low-achieving readers that were chosen as tutors, made a lot of progress by using this procedure. In addition, ESL students were also able to improve their grades due to the fact that they increased their approach in reading acquisition skills.

Students placed in ESL program learn together along with other non-English speakers; however, by using peer tutoring in classroom it will avoid the separation between regular English classes and ESL classes. These programs will promote community between students that will be helping each other grow academically. It was found that students with learning disabilities and low performing students who are exposed to the explicit teaching and peer tutoring treatment in the classroom, have better academic performance than those students who do not receive this type of assistance.

It was proven that peer tutoring is the most effective and no cost form of teaching [46] Benefits[ edit ] It has been proven that peer-mediated tutoring is an effective tool to help ESL students succeed academically.

Peer tutoring has been utilized across many different academic courses and the outcomes for those students that have different learning abilities are outstanding. Classmates who were actively involved with other peers in tutoring had better academic standing than those students who were not part of the tutoring program.

It was also found that the literature on the efficacy of peer tutoring service combined with regular classroom teaching, is the best methodology practice that is effective, that benefits students, teachers, and parents involved.

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