of traditional medicines by consumers, including incidents of overdose, unknowing use of suspect or counterfeit herbal medicines, and. Herbal medicine in traditional medical practice is an important resource which can be mobilized for the attainment of the common goal of health for all. Herbal Medicine erbal Medicines. Third edition. Joanne Barnes, Linda A Anderson and J David Phillipson. B arn es. A n d erso n. P h illip so n. H erb al M ed.

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Herbal Medicines Pdf

PDF | 40 minutes read | The number of patients seeking alternate and herbal therapy is growing exponentially. Herbal medicines are the synthesis of therapeutic. By definition, 'traditional' use of herbal medicines implies substantial historical use, usaascvb.info%20Medecines%usaascvb.info] . In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as “ acceptably demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes.

NCBI Bookshelf. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects. Boca Raton FL: Sissi Wachtel-Galor and Iris F. There are many different systems of traditional medicine, and the philosophy and practices of each are influenced by the prevailing conditions, environment, and geographic area within which it first evolved WHO , however, a common philosophy is a holistic approach to life, equilibrium of the mind, body, and the environment, and an emphasis on health rather than on disease. Generally, the focus is on the overall condition of the individual, rather than on the particular ailment or disease from which the patient is suffering, and the use of herbs is a core part of all systems of traditional medicine Engebretson ; Conboy et al. Traditional Chinese medicine TCM is an important example of how ancient and accumulated knowledge is applied in a holistic approach in present day health care. Yin represents the earth, cold, and femininity, whereas yang represents the sky, heat, and masculinity. The actions of yin and yang influence the interactions of the five elements composing the universe: TCM practitioners seek to control the yin and yang levels through 12 meridians, which bring and channel energy Q i through the body. TCM is a growing practice around the world and is used for promoting health as well as for preventing and curing diseases. TCM encompasses a range of practices, but herbal medicine is a core part Engebretson ; Nestler ; Schmidt et al. Three of the top-selling botanical products, namely Ginkgo biloba, Allium sativum garlic , and Panax ginseng , can be traced back to origins in TCM and are today used to treat various diseases Li, Jiang, and Chen ; Xutian, Zhang, and Louise Over the past years, the development and mass production of chemically synthesized drugs have revolutionized health care in most parts of the word.

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Publishing your article with us has many benefits, such as having access to a personal dashboard: This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus. Researcher Academy Author Services Try out personalized alert features. The most downloaded articles from Journal of Herbal Medicine in the last 90 days. Nutritional and medicinal applications of Moringa oleifera Lam.

Ethnobotanical importance of medicinal plants traded in Herbal markets of Rawalpindi- Pakistan March Bioavailability of resveratrol: Possibilities for enhancement March The therapeutic properties and applications of Aloe vera: A review June A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating safety and efficacy of an ayurvedic botanical formulation in reducing menopausal symptoms in otherwise healthy women March Pepper and papaya seeds March Muti is a word derived from medicinal plant and refers to traditionally sourced plant, mineral, and animal-based medicines.

In addition to herbs, traditional medicine may use animal parts and minerals.

However, only plant muti is considered a sustainable source of medicines. South African traditional plant medicines are fascinating with so many colors, forms, and effects. It is an art to know these and to use them correctly to bring about health and harmony, which is the aim of all true traditional healers. Muti market in Johannesburg Source—Ancient Origins.

The traditional healers known as the Sangoma or Inyanga are holders of healing power in the southern Bantu society. In a typical practice with a female traditional practitioner, the methods used depended on the nature of the complaint. For example, headaches are cured by snuffing or inhaling burning medicines, bitter tonics are used to increase appetite, sedative medicines for depression, vomiting medicines to clean the digestive system, and antibiotic or immune boosting medicines for weakness or infection.

She often counseled patients before administering appropriate healing herbal medicines [ 48 ]. Kenya As in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Kenya is experiencing a health worker shortage, particularly in rural areas.

In Kenya, very little quantitative evidence or literature exists on indigenous medicine and the health practices of alternative healers or the demand for traditional medical practitioners or on the role that they play in providing particular health services for the rural poor. As a result, TMPs currently do not have sufficient formal government recognition and are often sidelined in Human Resources in Health HRH planning activities; further, their activities remain unregulated.

Community-derived data show that hospitals are preferred if affordable and within reach. There is also significant self-care and use of pharmacies, although THMPs are preferred for worms, respiratory problems, and other conditions that are not as life threatening as infant diarrhea and tuberculosis [ 49 ]. Their practices are no different from other African countries. Nigeria The various ethnic groups in Nigeria have different health care practitioners aside their western counterparts, whose mode of practice is not unlike in other tribes.

Apart from the lack of adequate access and the fear of expired or fake drugs, the prohibitive cost of western medicine makes traditional medicine attractive. Various training schools exist for both herbal medicine and homeopathy, and as such, most modern traditional health practitioners have great knowledge of pharmaceutical properties of herbs and the shared cultural views of diseases in the society and they combine their knowledge with modern skills and techniques in processing and preserving herbal medicines, as well as in the management of diseases.

In oral interviews with two modern traditional medicine practitioners, Dr. Knowledge was however improved by further training, interaction, and discussion with colleagues, consultation of books on herbal medicine, and the Internet.

They claimed that the practice was very lucrative, especially since some ailments that defied orthodox medicine such as epilepsy and madness could be completely treated by traditional medicine. The two men divulged that the old concept of secrecy and divination is gradually fading away and being taken over by improved skills, understanding, and use of modern equipment where necessary. Another prominent member of the association, Professor J.

Okafor, who is a renowned silviculturist and plant taxonomist, is helping members to identify and classify plants.

The group also shares and documents evidence-based therapeutic knowledge. Such groups and training schools exist all over Nigeria. Other books have likewise produced useful information [ 16 , 21 ]. The greatest problem still facing herbal medicine in Nigeria is lack of adequate standardization and safety regulations [ 52 ]. However, the interest and involvement of educated and scientific-minded people in herbal medicine practice have to a great extent demystified and increased the acceptability of these medicines by a greater percentage of would-be skeptical populace.

A photograph of Dr. The writer with Dr. As with synthetic drugs, the quality, efficacy, and safety of medicinal plants must also be assured. Despite the widespread use of herbal medicines globally and their reported benefits, they are not completely harmless.

In as much as medicinal herbs have established therapeutic effects, they may also have the potential to induce adverse effects if used incorrectly or in overdose. The likelihood of adverse effects becomes more apparent due to indiscriminate, irresponsible, or nonregulated use and lack of proper standardization. These concerns have been the focus of many international forums on medicinal plants research and publications [ 53 ].

The rich flora of Africa contains numerous toxic plants, though with interesting medicinal uses. The toxic constituents e. In a survey in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria, among herbal medicine users, it was found that herbal medicine was popular among the respondents but they appeared to be ignorant of its potential toxicities [ 22 ].

Several herbal medicines have been reported to have toxic effects. Current mechanisms to track adverse effects of herbal medicines are inadequate [ 15 , 54 , 55 ]. Consumers generally consider herbal medicines as being natural and therefore safe and view them as alternatives to conventional medications. Only very few people who use herbal medicines informed their primary care physicians. It is therefore likely that many adverse drugs reactions go unrecorded with either patients failing to divulge information to health services, and no pharmacovigilance analyses are being carried out, or the observations are not being reported to appropriate quarters such as health regulatory bodies.

Establishing a diagnosis of herbal toxicity can be difficult. Even when herbal-related toxicity is suspected, a definitive diagnosis is difficult to establish without proper analysis of the product or plant material.

Very few adverse reactions have been reported for herbal medicines, especially when used concurrently with conventional or orthodox medicines [ 15 ].

The Complexity of Herbal Medicines

The results of many literature reviews suggest that the reported adverse drug reactions of herbal remedies are often due to a lack of understanding of their preparation and appropriate use. In a research of liver and kidney functions in medicinal plant users in South-East Nigeria, it was found that liver problems were the most prominent indices of toxicity as a result of chronic use [ 56 ].

Toxic components in these herbs such as alkaloids, tannins, oxalates, etc. Serum enzyme levels in herbal medicine users test group and nonusers control. Effect of length of use of herbal medicine on serum enzyme levels. Another important source of toxicity of herbal medicines worth mentioning is microbial contamination due to poor sanitary conditions during preparation [ 57 ].

Toxicity may also arise as a result of herb-drug interaction in situations where there is co-administration of herbal medicines with some conventional drugs or supplements [ 11 ]. Incorrect identification and misuse of plants may also lead to toxicity. It is therefore pertinent at this time to present correct, timely, and integrated communication of emerging data on risk as an essential part of pharmacovigilance, which could actually improve the health and safety of patients.

This calls for improved collaboration between traditional practitioners and modern health care professionals, researchers, and drug regulatory authorities. The latency period between the use of a drug and the occurrence of an adverse reaction, if determined, can also help in its causality assessment in pharmacovigilance management [ 25 ]. Such information can be invaluable in the interpretation of drug safety signals, and facilitate decisions on further protective actions to be taken concerning future use.

Herbal medicine - Semantic Scholar

Traditional African medicine and its relationship with modern medicine Plants have been the primary source of most medicines in the world, and they still continue to provide mankind with new remedies. These are no doubt more important in developing countries but quite relevant in industrialized world in the sense that pharmaceutical industries have come to consider them as a source or lead in the chemical synthesis of modern pharmaceuticals [ 24 , 58 ].

A number of African plants have found their way in modern medicine. These plants which had been used traditionally for ages have through improved scientific expertise been the sources of important drugs. A host of other African plants with promising pharmaceutical potentials include Garcinia kola, Aframomum melegueta, Xylopia aethiopica, Nauclea latifolia, Sutherlandia frutescens, Hypoxis hemerocallidea African wild potato , and Chasmanthera dependens as potential sources of antiinfective agents, including HIV, with proven activities [ 59 ], while Cajanus cajan, Balanites aegyptiaca, Acanthospermum hispidum, Calotropis procera, Jatropha curcas, among others, as potential sources of anticancer agents [ 60 ].

Biflavonoids such as kolaviron from Garcinia kola seeds, as well as other plants, have antihepatotoxic activity [ 61 ]. Advantages and disadvantages of traditional herbal medicine Both Western or traditional medicine come with their own challenges.

Currently, there are many western drugs on the market which have several side effects, in spite of their scientific claims. This can lead to reinvestigation of some agents that failed earlier trials and can be restudied and redesigned using new technologies to determine whether they can be modified for better efficacy and fewer side effects.

For example, maytansine isolated in the early s from the Ethiopian plant Maytenus serrata , looked promising in preclinical testing but was dropped in the early s from further study when it did not translate into efficacy in clinical trials; later, scientists isolated related compounds, ansamitocins, from a microbial source. A derivative of maytansine, DM1, has been conjugated with a monoclonal antibody and is now in trials for prostate cancer Brower Plants, herbs, and ethnobotanicals have been used since the early days of humankind and are still used throughout the world for health promotion and treatment of disease.

Still, herbs, rather than drugs, are often used in health care. For some, herbal medicine is their preferred method of treatment. For others, herbs are used as adjunct therapy to conventional pharmaceuticals. However, in many developing societies, traditional medicine of which herbal medicine is a core part is the only system of health care available or affordable. Regardless of the reason, those using herbal medicines should be assured that the products they are downloading are safe and contain what they are supposed to, whether this is a particular herb or a particular amount of a specific herbal component.

Consumers should also be given science-based information on dosage, contraindications, and efficacy. To achieve this, global harmonization of legislation is needed to guide the responsible production and marketing of herbal medicines.

If sufficient scientific evidence of benefit is available for an herb, then such legislation should allow for this to be used appropriately to promote the use of that herb so that these benefits can be realized for the promotion of public health and the treatment of disease. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Search term. I nternational D iversity and N ational P olicies The diversity among countries with the long history and holistic approach of herbal medicines makes evaluating and regulating them very challenging.

Q uality , S afety , and S cientific E vidence Herbal medicine has been commonly used over the years for treatment and prevention of diseases and health promotion as well as for enhancement of the span and quality of life.

Antioxidant effects of natural bioactive compounds. Curr Pharm Des. Barnes P. M, Bloom B, Nahin R. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, Beckman K. B, Ames B.

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Herbal Medicines in African Traditional Medicine

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. Brower V. Back to nature: Extinction of medicinal plants threatens drug discovery. J Natl Cancer Inst. Calapai G. Drug Saf. European legislation on herbal medicines: A look into the future; pp. Canter P. H, Ernst E. Herbal supplement use by persons aged over 50 years in Britain: Frequently used herbs, concomitant use of herbs, nutritional supplements and prescription drugs, rate of informing doctors and potential for negative interactions. Drugs Aging. Chan M.

E, Mok Y. S, Wong ST. F, Tong FM. C, Day CC. K, Tang K, Wong D. Survey and cluster analysis. Complement Ther Med.

Cohen P. A, Ernst E. Safety of herbal supplements: A guide for cardiologists. Cardiovasc Ther. Conboy L, Kaptchuk T. J, Eisenberg D.

The relationship between social factors and attitudes toward conventional and CAM practitioners. Complement Ther Clin Pract. De Smet P. Herbal medicine in Europe: Relaxing regulatory standards. N Engl J Med. Eisenberg D. M, Davis R. B, Ettner S.

Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, Results of a follow-up national survey. Engebretson J. Culture and complementary therapies. Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery. CAM research in Britain: The last 10 years. Evans S. Changing the knowledge base in Western herbal medicine. Soc Sci Med. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine CAM by male cancer patients: Information-seeking roles and types of evidence used.

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Who and how many people are taking herbal supplements? A survey of 21, adults. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. Hartmann T. From waste products to ecochemicals: Fifty years research of plant secondary metabolism. Health Canada, Drugs and Health Products. Nat Health Prod Regul. Food and drugs act. Holmes G. E, Bernstein C, Bernstein H. Oxidative and other DNA damages as the basis of aging: A review. Evolutionary mechanisms underlying secondary metabolite diversity.

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