A COURSE BOOK FOR A MARITIME ENGLISH PROGRAMME: A PROJECT IN PROGRESS Dina El-Dakhs (Ph.D.) Coordinator of Maritime English Programme . PDF | Maritime English is an umbrella term which refers to the English language In book: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, Chapter: Maritime English. Eπιστημονικός Σύμβουλος για το βιβλίο «Μaritime English Volume I» Γεώργιος Δούναβης, . Οργανισμού (IMO) (Model Course για τα Ναυτικά Αγγλικά) το βιβλίο Maritime English Volume I . What is your seaman's book number?.
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Here is the essential reference book defining the most commonly used . A COMPREHENSIVE & UPDATED MARITIME ENGLISH CLIL. Maritime English to Students - Download as Word Doc .doc /.docx), PDF File books on Maritime English and include them in the program of the Philippine. download English for the Maritime Industry with samples and free downloads. We recommend that you download an audio CD to accompany the course book.
Another example is the unit 'Marine Accidents', which requires students to complete a marine accident report. A clear specification of the methods that are adopted in the project was clearly announced to material developers. The methods included a mixture of four main schools; the Communicative Approach, the Humanistic Approach, the Natural Approach and the Lexical Approach. The Communicative Approach CA is widely accepted as an effective method for language teaching in both general and specialized language courses.
It is specifically recommended in the teaching of ME in the Model Course 3. Course designers laid the CA basic principles clear for material developers and provided examples of how to implement these principles. One main principle that was highlighted is the focus on communicative competence rather than mere linguistic accuracy.
Grammar is introduced in the course book, but it is a means not an end. Learners are rather engaged in a variety of activities that include an integration of the four language skills. Grammatical rules are taught inductively through allowing students to work out the rules themselves from the text and then the practice stage includes meaningful and communicative tasks.
Material developers were also encouraged to devise tasks that simulate real-life communication and stimulate active involvement on the part of learners. In real life, students participate in conversations, give presentations, read specialized texts, fill out forms, write reports, listen to the weather forecasts, etc.
With this awareness, material developers have attempted to include tasks that are realistic and meaningful. The unit 'Nautical Instruments', for example, requires students to interview a captain on an important nautical instrument and present the tape-recorded interview with pictures of the instrument to the ESP instructor.
The materials, thus, largely encourage instructors to adopt a student-centered approach to ME, where students are active participants in the learning process. Course designers also encouraged material developers to incorporate the basic philosophy of the humanistic approach.
Authenticity is at the heart of the course book. Written and audio texts are all authentic, mainly adapted from online resources. Activities also require learners to perform realistic tasks since realistic goals trigger and enhance the learner's motivation. Tasks also reveal recognition of the personalization element.
A number of tasks allow learners to express their true thoughts and feelings through discussions, role plays, presentations, etc. Learners are also engaged in a number of discussions, role-plays and presentations with the aim of furthering their communication and interpersonal skills. During such tasks, learners are encouraged to address the audience's needs and maintain their interest. The basic principles behind Krashen's Natural Approach also apply to the material development in the current project.
To begin with, material developers were asked to search for texts that are not too challenging for learners. The selected texts were mainly semi- technical and suitable for the language proficiency level of students.
Texts that are too difficult in terms of content or language will not be comprehensible for learners, which will de-motivate students and hinder the learning process. Another principle that emanated from the Natural Approach is that comprehension precedes production.
For example, all the sections in SMCP start with some activities that familiarize students with the meaning of different phrases. This is usually followed by other activities that engage students in completing dialogues or filling in gaps using the previously taught phrases.
Finally, learners are given relevant situations and asked to make up their own dialogues using these phrases and act them out in class. An important approach that dominates the development of vocabulary activities is the Lexical Approach Lewis, ; A great focus is placed on familiarizing learners with different lexical patterns in addition to single words.
Learners are introduced to phrasal verbs, collocations, semi-fixed expressions, etc. This is extremely relevant to ME training due to the highly specialized maritime language and the recurrent semi-fixed lexical patterns used for communication at sea.
Learners are not only required to use certain chunks, but they are also trained to recognize new chunks in texts. They are also given some jumbled semi-fixed expressions and asked to rearrange them by referring back to other texts. This approach helps learners to understand and produce English texts with ease and precision using pre-fabricated chunks.
It also allows them to become more autonomous in the future since they will be trained to identify relevant chunks in texts and use them in language production. For one thing, good teachers may not be good material developers. A certain caliber is needed to produce quality material.
Many ESP practitioners prefer to teach than to invest too much time in material- development projects. Besides, such projects need very good management. A number of things can go wrong if the process suffers from mismanagement.
For example, during the needs analysis stage any misinterpretation of demands can lead all team members astray. Similarly, if course designers do not share their philosophies or methodological principles with the material writing team, the resulting materials will be so heterogeneous that it cannot be included in one course book, and could also be too confusing for both instructors and learners during the implementation stage.
In the current project, ILS ESP team were quite aware of all these challenges, but still had to opt for the development of in-house materials since other ME training materials were either unavailable or did not match the needs identified in the needs analysis stage.
Two measures were, however, taken to reduce the burden. The search and selection process of the course books was good investment of time and effort since the availability of ready-made textbooks reduces the load on material developers, allows for the use of internationally tested materials, and helps the writing team to focus on only the technical part of the course.
Another measure that proved useful is setting a two-year plan for the project. This framework, including time for course design, material development, material piloting and review, has helped minimize the pressure placed on team members.
Rushing the team to finish the work in shorter time, especially when all members have a teaching workload, would have resulted in poor quality materials prepared in haste. Below is a brief description of the material development and implementation process.
Material development The first step with material development was the selection of team members. The course designer had already been selected based on the fact that she is the academic course coordinator and had previously participated in similar projects.
The two academic assistant coordinators were assigned as team leaders for the material developers in order to ensure continuous and smooth communication with all team members. The presence of the team leaders was extremely important for different reasons.
First, they helped in the course design stage with their valuable insight derived from their teaching years at the Nautical Department. They were also a very good link between material developers and the course designer.
Regular feedback and comments from the material writing team helped reshape the course design as seen necessary. The choice of material writers came in two phases. During the first phase, all ME instructors were welcome to participate in material development on a voluntary basis. A time framework was set and on- going discussion was encouraged with the team leaders.
This stage led to the production of various units, but the materials produced required a lot of review due to the varied experience level of the instructors and their tight teaching schedules.
After this initial phase, the selection of material writers was more structured. Still, the challenge was not easy in the second phase. The review process, carried out by the team leaders, was easier because material developers were more experienced and had already been provided by sample units prepared during the first material-development phase. Yet, the challenge at this phase was more related to the insufficiency of experienced and dedicated material developers. During the assignment of units, a number of criteria were observed.
A main criterion was assigning material developers units that would match their knowledge level of the subject matter. Some material developers were more experienced than others with nautical topics due to their longer teaching years at the Nautical Department. These developers were, therefore, assigned units of a more specialized nature, such as watch keeping or nautical instruments, whereas less experienced members were assigned units on geography or continents.
Another criterion is the material developer's ability to search for new authentic materials adaptable for teaching purposes.
Some developers demonstrated a higher ability to search for authentic materials than others. They were, thus, assigned the units that required extensive content selection.
The units that already had suggested texts to adapt were assigned to other instructors with less material-selection abilities. A final criterion in unit assignment was related to the type of tasks to be designed. Not all material developers excel with the same types of activities. Some are more confident with communicative reading activities, others design good problem-solving tasks, some others can produce very good role plays, etc.
This knowledge about the team members' ability also played a role in task assignment. The success of the material development stage mainly relies on good knowledge of the team members' abilities, and effective on-going communication with the team. Not knowing the abilities of the writing team means wrong assignment of tasks, which could lead to huge waste of time and effort in the review stage and material refinement.
This is why the manager of such material-development projects must attempt to gain as much knowledge as possible regarding the members' skills and abilities. Sometimes, however, an initial phase of the project could involve everyone until the abilities of each individual are properly examined.
Effective on-going communication with team members is also of extreme importance. This communication is also extremely useful for course designers since they can continuously update their plans if proven inadequate.
It is also useful for the review stage. Material reviewers will not, thus, need to make huge modifications if the development stage is well monitored. Material implementation Different units have already been in use in the ME programme at the Nautical Department since September Feedback is regularly sought from instructors and learners.
Instructors are encouraged to record their feedback on the materials after every session. This feedback is later gathered by the assistant coordinators and discussed during evaluation meetings. As for learners, instructors regularly give comments on their students' interest level and degree of classroom participation.
Some learners have also been interviewed at random concerning the new changes in the curriculum. Old students were more informative in this respect than freshmen because the first had already been exposed to different teaching materials at earlier stages of their college education. Informal discussions with lecturers and administrative personnel constitute a firm background for the on-going evaluation of course design and material development.
The college administrative personnel have also provided very useful insight into the course evaluation process through keeping the ESP staff updated with the requirements of the shipping companies providing College students with sea training and scholarship opportunities.
This on-going feedback has enriched the course evaluation process and helped keep the project on target.
Another important asset for the cooperation between ILS and the College of Maritime Transport is the introduction of the Marlins on-line tests for assessing the proficiency level of student candidates for sea training with mutli- national companies in summer The students sitting the tests had already taken two courses from the new ME programme.
Their test marks, thus, gave an indication for the kind of ME training required and how far the present changes have equipped learners with the required knowledge and skills to sit such internationally recognized exams. A two-year project was launched for this purpose in summer in response to the worldwide demand for seafarers with very good command of the English language, the lingua franca at sea. Course design was based on an assessment of the needs of the College of Maritime Transport for a new ME programme.
The needs analysis covered both the needs of the College staff and learners. This stage was also guided by the feedback of ME instructors with long experience at the Nautical Department. Then, a material writing team was set up, and materials for the first two courses were developed and piloted over two academic semesters.
Currently, the materials for the two courses are being refined and more materials for the last course of the programme are under development. Books Brown, H. Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. International Maritime Organization Lewis, M.
The Lexical Approach. Language Teaching Publications Lewis, M. Implementing the lexical Approach. Language Teaching Publications Tomlinson, B.
Cambridge University Press II. Internet Articles Ajideh, P. Dina El-Dakhs Ms. Karima Zayed Ms. Mervat Mahmoud Material writing team Ms. Alia Taher Ms. This original new course aims to develop the Maritime English level of seafarers, focussing on the specific communication needs of marine engineer officers and crew. Marlins Maritime English specialists have devised a variety of highly creative, interactive speaking, listening and reading tasks to engage and motivate the learner throughout.
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