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Online version of Freelang's Oriya-English dictionary and English-Oriya dictionary. Translation is much in demand these days. How to translate? Is Translation an art or a science? How does the translation of a literary work hepls in. As many as two hundred books have since been translated from Oriya into English. However, a look at a bibliography of OLET would indicate that the number of.
This article seeks to discuss some of the issues involved here and my own experiences as a translator. Published by Oxford University Press in , it went on to be the first book to receive the Sahitya Akademi Award the most prestigious Literary Award conferred by the Government of India in the English Translation category in It constitutes, in a way, a decisive turning point in the history of transmission of Oriya literature, opening up new vistas and drawing the attention of critics and readers outside.
As many as two hundred books have since been translated from Oriya into English. However, a look at a bibliography of OLET would indicate that the number of these published by any major publisher in the country and abroad is quite small, despite a growing interest by mainstream publishers such as OUP, Penguin, Macmillan, and others in the last decade.
Government undertakings such as National Book Trust and Sahitya Akademi have initiated a number of translation projects; but the most significant contribution to this field has been made by home-grown publishing enterprises.
Here I must mention Grassroots Publishers. In , it began publishing and promoting Oriya writers in English translation. Kamalakanta Mohapatra, a short-story writer and translator of more than two dozen books, started this outfit—one might say as a labour of love—without hope of making any profit. Why should Oriya speakers read their literature in English translation?
Reading literature in translation requires a willingness on the part of the reader to enter and negotiate an unfamiliar world. This unwillingness is conditioned by certain perceptions. We avidly read European literature or Harry Potter not only because these books give us aesthetic pleasure or entertainment but because we have an implicit belief that these books connect us to a bigger or more desirable world.
Readership is determined by the position the source language occupies in the real or imagined hierarchy of power and prestige. The major publishers do not promote translated books as they do those written in English. There is no hype or glamour surrounding the publication of translations. Most are procured by government library agencies, which then distribute them among libraries country-wide.
Some are prescribed in college and university curricula, which has helped in improving sales. True, the market and other forces determine what gets translated and who translates what and what gets published.
Some authors are translated extensively for various reasons—their eminence, enterprise, etc. In this context, there have been attempts to bring the richness and variety of Oriya literature to a wider readership by Rupantar, a centre for translation, based in Bhubaneswar.
Rupantar seeks to promote and preserve cultural diversity through translation. It has published English versions of texts belonging to various genres of Oriya literature such as autobiography, biography, play, poetry and fiction.
Through its projects, it brings neglected or marginalised writers into the mainstream. It also organises workshops that bring together scholars, writers and translators to discuss theoretical and practical issues relating to literary translation.
Through all these, Rupantar aims to train the next generation of translators. Jatindra K. Nayak, an academic and translator, has been the driving force behind Rupantar. English translations of Oriya books have attracted the attention of readers from other states of India. Very often, for reasons having to do with colonialism, the translator and the author assumes that his or her work will be read by the English-speaking West. But it is now being realised that the readers of English translations of Indian language texts are to be found in India itself, where English is functioning as a vital link language.
Once translated into English, a work can then be translated into other Indian as well as world languages. It may be mentioned here that Mauricio D. Aguilera Linde, professor of English at the University of Granada, has recently edited a Spanish anthology of twenty-one Oriya short stories. What is true for Oriya literature in English translation is more or less true for literature from other states of India.
Translation assumes a vital importance, for it establishes dialogues between language and culture and acquaints communities with other ways of looking at life and experience.
Nayak, Jatindra K. Mohapatra, Kamalakanta. Chatterjee, Rimi. Mukherjee, Minakshi.
Niranjana, Tejaswini. Siting Translation: Orient Longman, Such then is the nature of the novel whose English translation is in focus for us here. The style, in its stiffness and formality, is clearly Victorian, thus being at a significant remove from the colloquial style of the original.
But to do this would be to seriously misread and misjudge an attempt that, by virtue of its desire to experiment with the original, to create extensions or extrapolations from it, becomes a paradigm for translation as writing in the English translation scene in Orissa. In the sections that follow the focus will be on these levers of rewriting and reconstruction.
To do this it is necessary to think beyond the features of Englishing that are immediately apparent in the translation. An orientation toward the target language and culture is suggested here, although it can be said to be only partially redeemed by the compromise formula of the hyphenated and mixed form of Indo-Anglian.
The recourse to English is inevitable for this contradictory Indian project. Against the Grain This calls for a little bit of elaboration. For the question of why Das embarks upon a translation project at a time when the activity was very much suspect can only be posed by providing an account of it.
Das received his education under the Madras Presidency during the pre-independence period in India and went on to profess English in the Government Colleges of Orissa after independence. So if anyone was immersed in Anglophilia, it was Das. If anyone wanted fervently to emulate the fine English gentleman, his sexism and ethnocentrism included, it was again Das, as the above passage with its swooning reference to memsahibs shows. Yet the work to which he had put his heart and soul, the work which clearly was his opus, was this translation of an Oriya novel into English, which, given the prejudice against translation, would at best be dubbed a half-work.
The book had been greeted with universal derision since the day of its birth. Reports show him as being weary of other forms of public outlet, so few were the takers for translation during his day.
What becomes clear is that there is a mismatch, discordance between the text and the surrounding context.
Not merely that. Das seems also to have envisioned an alternative course, one tethered to translation and hence to cross-cultural comparison and exchange, which is now gaining increasing acceptance in the teaching and learning scenario across the world. And it is a trend, if truth be told, that continues to this day see Mohapatra, College, where Das had taught for long years and where the writing of this translation had been carried out.
S husband, is a respectable part of the General Economics of the Modern India. Das, , p. Thus Das gets started on his second and more fundamental move toward de-Englishing. How exactly does he do it? It calls to mind an antecedent act of symbolic translation that one of the pioneers of the Indo-Anglian novel, Rev. Lal Behari Day, had performed when faced with a similar problem of rendering the speech of the unlettered Bengali peasants in Bengal Peasant Life , an early and, in the eyes of scholars in the field, the second full fledged novel written in English by an Indian.
This is also the novel that Senapati rewrote by vernacularizing it. You perceive that Badan and Alanga speak better English than most uneducated English peasants; they speak almost like educated ladies and gentlemen, without any provincialism.
But how could I have avoided this defect in my history. If I had translated their talk into the Somersetshire or the Yorkshire dialect, I should have turned them into English, and not Bengali, peasants.
You will, therefore, please overlook this grave, though unavoidable, fault in this authentic narrative. Not many are aware of what linguists and other influential postcolonial critics  have to say on the subject of English vs.
In their essay in the influential book, Relocating Postcolonialism , Laura Wright and Jonathan Hope have joined linguistic insights with postcolonial perspectives in order to demolish the myth that there is something about English that inherently makes it the carrier of imperialist values.
They have demonstrated convincingly that the binary formula of English vs. Wright and Hope have argued that Standard English can be neither denied to the peripheries nor allowed only a centralizing function. Markandeya, they show, occupies the space of Standard English, but without that stopping her from marking off upper middle class English as a restricted sociolect that is, a dialect spoken by a single class.
The fact of it inhabiting the space of Standard English, and its upper reaches does not automatically confer on it an Anglo-centric character, as is often believed.
For this Das has lengthened the shelf life of one female character named Miss S oshi M ukhi Ray, mentioned in passing in an earlier chapter, and has called an entirely new male figure, Kumar Narottam Das, into being. A careful examination reveals, however, that there is also a signal difference between the use of motto in this English translation and its cultist predecessor Bengal Peasant Life, whose epigraphic habit it imitates, which is itself modeled on the practice of nineteenth-century English novels.
Senapati, as has been shown by critics Mohapatra and Nayak, ; Mohanty, , had himself rewritten the former novel by historicizing its timeless picture of the Indian village and by filtering it through an Oriya lens. This meant cutting the portrayal of village life very near to its bone by getting rid of Orientalist baggage. We walked away through the darkness to taste the bliss of the soul. I heard him whisper, with his devotional lips in my ear on that dark night, that the path to Brindaban was indeed a dark and difficult path.
On our way to holy Brindaban, my spiritual benefactor and I sojourned for a month or so in a splendid Irani hotel called Fast Guys and Hot Sties which stood in those days in Telenga Bazar in the city of Cuttack. Soon I came to be complimented generally as the Night Queen of the Hotel. During my sojourn there habitual litigation brought the Samant to Cuttack and he came to stay, as his wont was, at the very same hotel. I visited this holy man to listen to him narrating enchanting tales about Sri Chaitanya.
My brothers became furious when they found out about these visits. I wanted to go away to Brindaban, so one night I escaped with the holy man; on the way, I stayed with him in Telenga Bazar in Cuttack.