QURAN ENGLISH TRANSLATION. Clear, Pure, Easy to Read. Modern English. Translated from Arabic by Talal Itani. Published by ClearQuran. Dallas, Beirut. Printedin UKBy: British Library Cataloguingin Publication data: [Koran. English and Arabic. ]. The Holy Quran with English translation. 1. Ali, maulawi Sher. This package in PDF format is Color-Coded Quran in Arabic Text with a corresponding English Text translation. The purpose is to provide, on Computer Media.
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We also have a modern Quran translation in plain English here: Link . I downloaded the pdf file of holy quran in both arabic and english to understand the holy. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page important languages of the world to enable the non-Arabic-speaking Muslims to reader with this English translation by usaascvb.infoad Tadi-ud Din al-Hilali and.
Certainly, We have sent you O Muhammad with the truth, as a bringer of good tidings, and a warner. And you will not be asked about the companions of Hell fire.
And the Jews will never be pleased with you, nor the Christians, until you follow the guidance of Allah is the only guidance. Those to whom We have given the Book, they recite it with its true recital. Those are the ones who believe in it. And whoever disbelieves in it, then such are those who are the losers.
O Children of Israel, remember My favor which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you over the worlds people. And fear a Day of Judgment when no soul will avail another soul at all, nor will compensation be accepted from it, nor will intercession benefit it, nor And when Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain words commands , so he fulfilled them.
And when We made the House Kaaba a place of return for mankind, and a place of safety. An evil destination. And when Abraham was raising the foundations of the House, and Ishmael. And show us our rituals of pilgrimage , and accept our repentance. Indeed, You are the one who accepts repentance, the Most And who would be averse to the religion of Abraham, except him who befools himself.
And We had chosen him in the world.
And indeed, in the Hereafter, he will be among the righteous. That was a nation which has passed away. For them is that which they earned, and for you is that which you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.
We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted. So if they believe in the same that which you believe, then they are rightly guided. And if they turn away, then they are only in schism. So Allah will be sufficient for you against them. And we are His worshippers. And for us are our deeds, and for you are your deeds. And we are sincere to Him. And who is more unjust than one who conceals a testimony which he has from Allah.
It is however very probable that it was a complete translation. Later in the 11th century, one of the students of Abu Mansur Abdullah al-Ansari wrote a complete tafsir of the Quran in Persian. The manuscripts of all three books have survived and have been published several times. In , translations in languages were known.
According to modern scholars[ citation needed ], the translation tended to "exaggerate harmless text to give it a nasty or licentious sting" and preferred improbable and unpleasant meanings over likely and decent ones. Ketenensis' work was republished in in three editions by Theodore Bibliander at Basel along with Cluni corpus and other Christian propaganda.
All editions contained a preface by Martin Luther. Many later European "translations" of the Qur'an merely translated Ketenensis' Latin version into their own language, as opposed to translating the Qur'an directly from Arabic.
As a result, early European translations of the Qur'an were erroneous and distorted. In the fifteenth century, Juan of Segovia produced another translation in collaboration with the Mudejar writer, Isa of Segovia.
Only the prologue survives. In the early seventeenth century, another translated was made, attributed to Cyril Lucaris. Despite the refutatio's anti-Islamic tendency Marracci's translation is accurate and suitably commented; besides, by quoting many Islamic sources he certainly broadens his time's horizon considerably.
These later translations were quite inauthentic, and one even claimed to be published in Mecca in AH. There were lost translations in Catalan , one of them by Francesc Pons Saclota in , the other appeared in Perpignan in The Italian translation was used to derive the first German translation Salomon Schweigger in in Nuremberg , which in turn was used to derive the first Dutch translation in The Du Ryer translation also fathered many re-translations, most notably an English version by Alexander Ross in Ross' version was used to derive several others: a Dutch version by Glazemaker, a German version by Lange.
This was followed two centuries later in Paris by the translation by Kasimirski who was an interpreter for the French Persian legation. This work of Muhammad Hamidullah continues to be reprinted and published in Paris and Lebanon as it is regarded as the most linguistically accurate of all translation although critics may complain there is some loss of the spirit of the Arabic original.
Spanish[ edit ] There are four complete translations of the Qur'an in modern Spanish that are commonly available. Main article: English translations of the Quran The earliest known translation of the Qur'an in any European language was the Latin works by Robert of Ketton at the behest of the Abbot of Cluny in c.
This translation remained the only one until when the first English language translation was done by Alexander Ross, chaplain to King Charles I, who translated from a French work L'Alcoran de Mahomet by du Ryer. In , George Sale produced the first translation of the Qur'an direct from Arabic into English but reflecting his missionary stance.
Since then, there have been English translations by the clergyman John Medows Rodwell in , and Edward Henry Palmer in , both showing in their works a number of mistakes of mistranslation and misinterpretation, which brings into question their primary aim. The Qur'an by Dr. He was the first Muslim to present a translation of the Qur'an into English along with the original Arabic text.
Isabelle Desmidt Didactic norms focused on the intellectual and emotional development of the child and setting good examples 2. Pedagogical norms requiring the adjustment to the language skills and to the conceptual knowledge of the child 3. Technical norms how to deal with illustrations, whether or not to keep the original layout Ibid. Similarly, Zohar Shavit An adjustment of the text to make it appropriate and useful to the child, in accordance with what society regards at a certain point in time as educationally good for the child 2.
An adjustment of plot, characterization and language to prevailing society s perception of the child s ability to read and comprehend. Shavit Ibid.: Having outlined the norms that govern the translation process when translating for children, it is important to provide a brief overview of some of the strategies which translators may use in order to conform to these norms see section 4.
I will discuss the categories that are relevant to this dissertation as Shavit This was done firstly, due to the popularity of adventure stories in children s literature see characteristics of children s literature in section.
In order for a translation of the Quran to be accepted by the children s system, one would assume that a number of changes to the original text would have been required.
Additions and deletions- When translating for children, translators may manipulate the text by adding to and deleting from it Ibid.: The reason for this is based on the assumption that children are incapable of reading lengthy texts bid. The decisions made in terms of what material to omit from the text is based on Shavit s two principles, that of the morality accepted and demanded by the children s system and the child s perceived level of comprehension Ibid.: In the context of translating the Quran for children this means that a translator would have to make changes to the original text by deleting parts of it, a strategy which is practically unheard of in the context of translating the Quran.
An example of where this strategy has been adopted when dealing with the translation of another sacred text is that of the Bible. When the Bible was translated specifically for children and there are many examples of this3 , many canonical taboos were broken including the exclusion and sanitizing of troubling texts , simplification and the addition of pictures Du Toit The norm of simplification tends to determine the thematic and characterization of the text as well as the types of structures that are permissible Ibid.
According to Shavit Ibid. Thus, Alice in Wonderland for example originally contained characteristics which adapters and translators considered to be unsuitable for 3For a comprehensive analysis of existing children s bibles see Bottigheimer Since the Quran has always been recognized for its literary supremacy Abdel Haleem There are two further categories which Shavit However due to reasons of scope and relevance, these will not be included in the forthcoming analysis and therefore will not be discussed in any more detail.
Cultural context adaptation is a phrase that was first used by Klingberg It has subsequently been adopted as an umbrella term for various strategies that move the original text towards the child reader in the target culture Lathey This concept is based on the assumption that children may find it difficult to assimilate foreign names, currencies, types of food, locations etc.
According to Klingberg Thus, translators must decide carefully how much foreignness would be acceptable in a given text. Based on existing Quran translation literature, it appears that most English translations tend to be source-oriented.
This is due to the constraints imposed by the original Arabic text. Furthermore, there appears to be an apparent lack of descriptive studies in this area of research. This dissertation has also presented the general analytical framework which is based on Toury s notion of norms, and more specifically his distinction between acceptability and adequacy.
In addition, the current conventions when translating for children have been discussed and thereby a number of categories that would indicate whether a text conforms to the expectations of the target readership have been specified.
The present chapter will present a detailed discussion of the text to be analysed i. Storybook alongside the methodology which will be adopted in the forthcoming analysis. Storybook by Suniyasnain Khan This is an adaptation of the Quran specifically written for children. It has been selected because it is a unique case of a recent English translation, which explicitly defines its intended target readership as children.
Furthermore it also addresses the parents with its aim of making the message of the Quran more meaningful for children on its back cover Ibid.: Since the intended target readership has been explicitly stated it should be rather straightforward to investigate whether this particular translation conforms to their expectations.
However there are two points which need further explanation before we can move on to discuss how this will be done. The first concerns the concept of adaptation and the second is related to the intended target readership. Thus, both terms appear to be suitable when describing My First Quran: However it is important to point out that there are a number of scholars who take a clear stand against adapting texts, believing that this process denatures and pedagogizes children s literature Oittinen: Oittinen Ibid.: In her opinion, all translation involves adaptation of some kind, explaining that translation is always an issue of different users of the texts, which involves rewriting for new target-language audiences bid.
She argues that the translator always takes the target readers into consideration and adapts the text accordingly. Therefore there is no difference in this respect between adult and children s literature, except for modifications and adaptations within translations being more common in children s literature.
This is because they are required in order to make a target text conform to the norms based on what adults perceive to be useful, good for the child see section 2. In terms of the intended target readership, it is important to highlight that in addition to it being defined as English-speaking children and hidden adult readers such as their parents , My First Quran: Storybook appears to have been primarily produced for children from a Muslim background. This is reflected in the following statement made on the back cover: Designed for use at home or at school, this book makes the message of the Quran more meaningful for children.
For this reason, I would argue that the statements imply that My First Quran: Storybook was specifically written for English-speaking children from a Muslim background. Although this point may not appear to be of particular significance at this stage, it is important to keep in mind the target readership as it has now been defined for the purpose of the forthcoming of analysis.
This is because children and parents from a Muslim background may have different or additional expectations which the translation may or may not conform to. Due to the scope of this study, the analysis will be limited to the translation itself. I would argue that this approach is the most productive for this study. This is because the translation itself is the primary product of the translation process.
Therefore it will depict the actual norms in action, unlike statements made by the translators, critics, publishers etc. There will be a number of questions that will arise in the examination of My First Quran: These include: In other words, does it display features specific to children s literature as described in section 2.
Has the text been adapted in order to make it more appropriate for children? Has the text been simplified so that children would be able to comprehend the text? All of these questions will be addressed in the course of the analysis.
Although the primary focus of the analysis will be the target text itself, it will be discussed in relation to the Arabic original, for which a generally accepted English translation will be provided.
As explained in section 1. The English translation which has been selected for the purpose of the analysis is that of Arthur Arberry , a bona fide scholar of Arabic and Islam who graduated from the University of Cambridge and spent several years in the Middle East, perfecting his Arabic language skills. His translation, The Koran Interpreted, acknowledges the Muslim belief that the Quran can only be interpreted, but not translated. He rendered the original into clear English and separated text from tradition.
According to Mohammed Abdel aleem: The original Arabic text has been taken from the Quranic Arabic Corpus It would be impossible to compare the target and source texts in their entirety. For this reason, some small-scale comparisons of phrases and brief extracts will serve as examples to illustrate the translation strategies that the translator adopted during the translation process.
These will be discussed in relation to how they may or may not conform to the expectations of the intended target readership i. The discussion of the specific strategies and conclusions regarding whether they conform to the acceptability norm will, of course, involve reference to the literature on translating for children as discussed in section 2. This is because the use of those strategies would reflect whether the translator conformed to the expectations of the target readership and thereby indicate whether she opted for the translation s acceptability rather than its adequacy.
Storybook conforms to the norm of acceptability rather than the norm of adequacy would exceed the scope of the present dissertation. Therefore the analysis presented here is broken down into four main sections. The first section will discuss the translation in relation to existing models in the target system.
The second section will provide a more detailed discussion of the text s integrality and the third section will discuss the level of complexity of the text. This is followed by a final section which deals with the observations made with regard to cultural context adaption.
All of the categories examined reveal that the translator of My First Quran: Storybook adopted a number of strategies that have resulted in a target-oriented translation. The text displays a number of characteristics that are typical of children s literature and therefore it conforms to the expectations of the intended target readership.
A number of examples from the book will now be provided and discussed in more detail, with reference to the original Arabic text and its English translation where necessary. Storybook displays a variety of the features typical of literature which has been translated specifically for children see chapter 2.
First of all, the concept of a storybook in itself is an indication of the translation conforming to the target system. It meets the expectations of children who, as established earlier, tend to dislike long descriptions and explanations, and prefer short and dynamic stories. Thus, the target text has been changed, in parts expanded, in others abridged, deleted and added to, in order to render the source text into the conventional storybook format. Storybook contains a total of 43 stories, based on 22 chapters out of the chapters in the original text.
The original Quran is not divided into a number of stories, but rather chapters which each deal with a variety of topics about beliefs, morals, stories about the previous prophets, rituals and legal provisions see Abdel Haleem Storybook in comparison is divided into short stories which each deal with one general event or idea, starting with narrations about how the world began, the creation of man, animals and the universe, followed by stories about the different prophets, peoples and nations, each containing moral values within them.
While the beliefs and morals quantitatively make up the largest part of the original Arabic Quran Abdel Haleem A lot of these have not been included in My First Quran: Although the stories cover some ritualistic aspects such as the sacrificing of an animal as part of Hajj the pilgrimage , a lot of material such as rulings on marriage, divorce, inheritance, specific punishments etc. This may be in order to a make the text appropriate and useful for the child, in accordance with what society thinks is good for the child and b adjust the text in such a way that the child is able to comprehend it.
Since this strategy is related to the text s integrality, it will be discussed further in the next section. The order in which the selected material in My First Quran: Storybook has been arranged also differs from the original in that it has been put into chronological order. It is not like the original Arabic text, which is neither arranged chronologically, nor by subject matter Abdel Haleem Each story in My First Quran: Storybook has a beginning and an end and leads naturally to the next story or event.
Since My First Quran; Storybook does not share the same structure and order as the original text, it suggests that the translator prioritised the needs of the target readership rather than ensuring the translation s adequacy.
The visual elements of My First Quran: Storybook, with its bright colours and illustrations further indicate that it was designed with the expectations of young readers in mind. As discussed in section 2. Storybook, unlike the original Arabic text or any other English translations is complemented by illustrations such as those seen in figure 1 for example, as an aid for children to imagine the characters or scenery of the story.
Thus, it conforms to the norm of acceptability in this respect. Figure 1: Storybook is clear and simple and no effort has been made to replicate the poetic, eloquent style of the Arabic original, which is often emphasised by scholars. Abdel Haleem for example points out how the literary supremacy of the Quran was recognised by both followers and opponents of the Prophet Muhammad, who were described as Arabs whose paramount gift lay in eloquence of speech and who had a rich and elaborate literature, especially poetry: This strategy of simplification suggests that the translator wanted to conform to existing models in the target system.
However it also indicates that the text was changed in order to make it comprehensible for children. Additions and omissions As explained in section 2. They are therefore especially frequent when adult books are being adapted into the children s system and translators have to take into account the child s perceived level of comprehension Shavit According to Thomson-Wohlgemuth Storybook is full of additions and omissions and some examples of these will be discussed in this section in more detail.
The first, excerpt 1 , is from the first story in My First Quran: Storybook, which, at length, provides the reader with a narration of the beginning of the world. This story is based on verse in chapter 2 from the original Arabic Quran: Excerpt 1 Arabic original: In the Beginning A long, long time ago, there was nothing but a great empty space.
There was no sun and no moon. There was no light anywhere. Everything was covered with darkness. The Merciful Allah thought of making the world. And the world was made. Allah wanted the world to be beautiful. He spread the earth like a carpet. Then he put mountains on it to hold it down. In my First Quran: Storybook, a lot of additional information, which explicitly describes what can be inferred by this verse, has been added to it, turning it into the length of an entire story see Khan This story provides the reader with a clear picture of what being the creator of the heavens and earth actually means.
It starts with describing a time where there was nothing but a great empty space and moves on to explain how the entire universe including the sky, the stars, the land, the seas, the animals, the angels and Adam and Eve was created, all as a result of God s demands.
Similarly, excerpt 2 and 4 are from the 17th story, which is called The first call to ajj see Khan The entire story is based on 2 verses from the original Quran chapter 2: Excerpt 2 Arabic original: And when we appointed the House to be a place of visitation for the people, and a sanctuary, and: Make it clean and pure.
Then people can come and pray. Allah also said This is my House. Do not keep anything else here. Then people may pray to Me in peace. They should walk around the Kabah. They should pray standing.
They should bow and prostrate themselves in prayer People in all corners of Arabia heard the call to Hajj. They came to Makkah. Some came on foot. Some came riding swift camels. Some came alone and some came with family and friends. Some came from far, far away.
They had to cross deep valleys and high mountains and hot deserts. It explains, in detail, how people from all over the world travel to Makkah to complete the Pilgrimage. In addition to coming by foot or riding on camels, it explains that Muslims nowadays may go on Hajj by planes, boats, cars and buses. This additional information may be to ensure that the child is able to understand what going on Hajj actually entails. However since some of the means of transport mentioned in My First Quran: Storybook did not even exist at the time when the Quran was revealed, I would argue that these words may also 5 See Appendix 1 for the rest of the story.
A religious duty which must be carried out at least once in a lifetime by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so. The story in My First Quran: Storybook, unlike the two verses it is based on, also contains an entire section explaining why people are called to Hajj 8 i. Furthermore it also provides the child with more information about what going on Hajj entails i. Storybook , thereby establishing clear links between this section and an earlier section of the book.
The inclusion of rituals in the case of the story about Hajj, could certainly be for the purpose of cohesion9, as it links one of the ritualistic aspects of Hajj together with the story of the Prophet Ibrahim and thereby how the this ritual was established.
It seems that this is only extended to what the translator has considered to be appropriate for the child, since other details such as abstaining from sexual intercourse while performing the pilgrimage, mentioned in verse of chapter 2, have not been included see excerpt 3. Excerpt 3: Arabic original: As mentioned in section 2. The Pilgrimage is in months well-known; whoso undertakes the duty of Pilgrimage in them shall not go in to his womenfolk nor indulge in ungodliness and disputing in the Pilgrimage.
Whatever good you do, God knows it.