The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology, 8th Edition Clinically Oriented Anatomy, Sixth Edition Clinically Oriented Pulmonary Imaging. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Keith L. Moore and others published The Developing Human. Clinically Oriented Embryology. Persaud, Mark G. Torchia. [Matching item] The developing human clinically oriented embryology Keith L. Moore ; [illustrated by Glen Reid] [electronic resource] - 2d ed. [Matching item] The Developing Human [electronic resource]: Clinically Oriented Embryology.
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This PDF file was converted by Atop CHM to PDF Converter free version! It is customary to divide human development into prenatal (before birth) and postnatal (after birth) periods. . Developmental anatomy is the field of embryology concerned with the changes that cells, tissues, .. CLINICALLY ORIENTED PROBLEMS. Download The Developing Human- Clinically Oriented Embryology 10th Edition PDF Free. Written by some of the world's most famous anatomists, the 10th. In this part of the article, you will be able to access usaascvb.info file of The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology 8th Edition PDF by using our direct.
Blastocyst Gr. After 2 to 3 days, the morula enters the uterus from the uterine tube fallopian tube. Soon a fluid- filled cavity, the blastocystic cavity, develops inside it. This change converts the morula into a blastocyst. Its centrallylocated cells, the inner cell mass or embryoblast, is the embryonic part of the embryo. The process during which the blastocyst attaches to the endometrium, the mucous membrane or lining of uterus, and subsequently embeds in it.
The preimplantation period of embryonic development is the time between fertilization and the beginning of implantation, a period of approximately6 days.
Gastrula Gr. During gastrulation transformation of a blastocyst into a gastrula , a three-layered or trilaminar embryonic disc forms third week. The three germ layers of the gastrula ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm subsequentlydifferentiate into the tissues and organs of the embryo. Neurula Gr. The earlyembryo during the third and fourth weeks when the neural tube is developing from the neural plate see Fig. It is the first appearance of the nervous system and the next stage after the gastrula.
Embryo Gr. The developing human during its earlystages of development. The embryonic period extends to the end of the eighth week 56 days , bywhich time the beginnings of all major structures are present.
The size of embryos is given as crown-rump length, which is measured from the vertexof the cranium crown of head to the rump buttocks. Stages of Prenatal Development. Earlyembryonic development is described in stages because of the variable period it takes for embryos to develop certain morphologic characteristics see Fig.
Stage 1 begins at fertilization and embryonic development ends at stage 23, which occurs on day The fetal period begins on day57 and ends when the fetus is completelyoutside the mother. Conceptus L. The embryo and its adnexa L.
The conceptus includes all structures that develop from the zygote, both embryonic and extraembryonic.
Hence, it includes the embryo as well as the embryonic part of the placenta and its associated membranes: Primordium L. The beginning or first discernible indication of an organ or structure.
The terms anlage and rudiment have similar meanings. The primordium of the upper limb appears as a bud on day26 see Fig. Fetus L.
After the embryonic period 8 weeks and until birth, the developing human is called a fetus. During the fetal period ninth week to birth , differentiation and growth of the tissues and organs formed during the embryonic period occur. These developmental changes are not dramatic.
Development of anovarianfolliclecontaininganoocyte, ovulation, andthephases of themenstrual cycleareillustrated. Humandevelopment begins at fertilization, approximately 14days after theonset of thelast normal menstrual period.
Cleavageof thezygoteintheuterinetube, implantationof theblastocyst intheendometrium lining of theuterus, andearly development of theembryoarealsoshown. Beginningstudents shouldnot attempt to memorizethesetables or thestages e. Thefetal period, extendingfrom9weeks tobirth, is characterizedby growthandelaborationof structures.
Sex is clearly distinguishableby 12weeks. Fetuses areviable22 weeks after fertilization, but their chances of survival arenot gooduntil they areseveral weeks older. The toweekfetuses shownareapproximately half of their actual sizes.
For moreinformation, seeChapter 6. The rate of bodygrowth is remarkable, especiallyduring the third and fourth months see Fig. Abortion L. Apremature stoppage of development and expulsion of a conceptus from the uterus or expulsion of an embryo or fetus before it is viable-capable of living outside the uterus. An abortus is the products of an abortion i. There are different types of abortion: Despite everyeffort to prevent an abortion, approximatelyhalf of these concepti ultimatelyabort.
Aspontaneous abortion is one that occurs naturallyand is most common during the third week after fertilization. Ahabitual abortion is the spontaneous expulsion of a dead or nonviable embryo or fetus in three or more consecutive pregnancies. An induced abortion is a birth that is medicallyinduced before 20 weeks i.
This type of abortion refers to the expulsion of an embryo or fetus induced intentionallybydrugs or mechanical means Acomplete abortion is one in which all the products of conception are expelled from the uterus. Amissed abortion is the retention of a conceptus in the uterus after death of the embryo or fetus. Amiscarriage is the spontaneous abortion of a fetus and its membranes before the middle of the second trimester approximately days.
Aperiod of three calendar months during a pregnancy. Obstetricians commonlydivide the 9-month period of gestation into three trimesters. The most critical stages of development occur during the first trimester 13 weeks when embryonic and earlyfetal development is occurring. Postnatal Period.
The period occurring after birth. Explanations of frequentlyused developmental terms and periods follow. Infancyrefers to the earliest period of extrauterine life, roughlythe first year after birth.
An infant aged 1 month or younger is called a newborn or neonate.
Transition from intrauterine to extrauterine existence requires manycritical changes, especiallyin the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. If newborn infants survive the first crucial hours after birth, their chances of living are usuallygood. The bodyas a whole grows particularly rapidlyduring infancy; total length increases byapproximatelyone half and weight is usuallytripled. By1 year of age, most children have sixto eight teeth. Childhoodis the period from approximately13 months until puberty.
The primary deciduous teeth continue to appear and are later replaced bythe secondary permanent teeth. During earlychildhood, there is active ossification formation of bone , but as the child becomes older, the rate of bodygrowth slows down. Just before puberty, however, growth accelerates-the prepubertal growth spurt. Pubertyoccurs usuallybetween the ages of 12 and 15 years in girls and 13 and 16 years in boys, during which secondary sexual characteristics develop and the capabilityof sexual reproduction is attained.
The stages of pubertal development follow a consistent pattern and are defined bythe appearance of secondarysexual characteristics e. Pubertyends in females with the first menstrual period or menarche, the beginning of the menstrual cycles or periods.
Pubertyends in males when mature sperms are produced. Adolescence is the period from approximately11 to 19 years of age, which is characterized byrapid physical and sexual maturation. It extends from the earliest signs of sexual maturity-puberty-until the attainment of adult physical, mental, and emotional maturity. The ability to reproduce is achieved during adolescence.
The general growth rate decelerates as this period terminates, but growth of some structures accelerates e. Adulthood L. Ossification and growth are virtuallycompleted during earlyadulthood 21 to 25 years.
Thereafter, developmental changes occur veryslowly. Developmental anatomyis the field of embryologyconcerned with the changes that cells, tissues, organs, and the bodyas a whole undergo from a germ cell of each parent to the resulting adult.
Prenatal development is more rapid than postnatal development and results in more striking changes. Teratology Gr. Embryology Bridges the gap between prenatal development and obstetrics, perinatal medicine, pediatrics, and clinical anatomy. Develops knowledge concerning the beginnings of human life and the changes occurring during prenatal development.
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