Research methods in psychology shaughnessy pdf


 

Research methods in psychology / John J. Shaughnessy, Eugene B. .. JOHN J. SHAUGHNESSY is Professor of Psychology at Hope College, a rela-. John J Shaughnessy Eugene B Zechmeister Jeanne S Zechmeister Research Now in its ninth successful edition, Research Methods in Psychology unites. Well, publication Research Methods In Psychology By John J Shaughnessy, Eugene B Zechmeister will make you closer to exactly what you are willing.

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Research Methods In Psychology Shaughnessy Pdf

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Shaughnessy, John J., – Research methods in psychology / John J. Shaughnessy, Eugene B. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, - Research methods in psychology pages, , English, Book; Illustrated, Research methods in psychology / John. Now in its ninth successful edition, Research Methods in Psychology unites students' passion for psychology with their interest in answering questions about .

Scientific and Everyday Approaches to Knowledge The scientific method is empirical and requires systematic, controlled observation. Scientists gain the greatest control when they conduct an experiment; in an experiment, researchers manipulate independent variables to determine their effect on behavior. Dependent variables are measures of behavior used to assess the effects of independent variables. Scientific reporting is unbiased and objective; clear communication of constructs occurs when operational definitions are used. Scientific instruments are accurate and precise; physical and psychological measurement should be valid and reliable. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation for a phenomenon; testable hypotheses have clearly defined concepts operational definitions , are not circular, and refer to concepts that can be observed. Goals of the Scientific Method The scientific method is intended to meet four goals: description, prediction, explanation, and application. Description Psychologists seek to describe events and relationships between variables; most often, researchers use the nomothetic approach and quantitative analysis. Prediction Correlational relationships allow psychologists to predict behavior or events, but do not allow psychologists to infer what causes these relationships. Explanation Psychologists understand the cause of a phenomenon when the three conditions for causal 3 inference are met: covariation, time-order relationship, and elimination of plausible alternative causes. The experimental method, in which researchers manipulate independent variables to determine their effect on dependent variables, establishes time order and allows a clearer determination of covariation. Plausible alternative causes for a relationship are eliminated if there are no confoundings in a study. Psychologists conduct basic research to gain knowledge about behavior and mental processes and to test theories.

For a span of 8 weeks, preschool children were assigned to 4, 6, or 8 hours per week for time allowed on the equipment. She then tested their motor coordination by asking them to skip, jump, and stand on one foot. IV: time on playground equipment with three levels: 4, 6, or 8 hours per week DV: scores on test of motor coordination C.

A developmental psychologist was interested in the amount of verbal behavior very young children displayed depending on who else was present. The children in the study were 3 years old. These children were observed in a laboratory setting for a minute period. Half of the children were assigned to a condition in which an adult was present with the child during the session.

The other half of the children were assigned to a condition in which another young child was present during the session with the child being observed. The psychologist measured the number, duration, and complexity of the verbal utterances of each observed child.

A psychologist conducted an experiment to test the hypothesis that individuals embedded in their ingroup culture would be less likely to help a stranger.

Research methods in psychology (Book, ) [usaascvb.info]

College students were recruited to respond to Aa brief survey about their campus experience near the entrance to the student activity center. The first testing session took place early in the semester. To activate identification with their university embeddedness , these participants were given a clipboard and asked to write down three things they like about their university.

Twenty students were tested. The second testing session took place on two afternoons during the last week of classes at the same location.

In this control condition lowembedded situation , twenty new students were asked to write down three things they plan to do during break. In each condition, immediately after each participant returned the clipboard to the psychologist, a student research assistant, wearing a sweatshirt with the name of a rival school, walked by the pair and Aaccidentally dropped a file containing papers near the participant.

The psychologist recorded whether the participant helped pick up the papers. Results indicated that, as predicted, participants in the embedded condition were less likely to help than participants in the control condition. The psychologist concluded that identification with an in-group embeddedness causes people to offer less help to a stranger. Identify the independent variable of interest to the psychologist and its levels and the dependent variable.

The dependent variable is helping, measured by whether each participant helped to pick up papers. Explain clearly how the confounding occurred and describe the conclusions that can be made about the effects of embeddedness on helping.

Another potentially relevant variable is time of the semester participants were tested. The confounding occurred because all the participants in the embedded condition were tested early in the semester and all the participants in the control condition were tested during the last week.

The psychologist concluded that being embedded in an in-group causes people to be less helpful. Because of the confounding, however, it is also possible to conclude that participants are more helpful at the end of an academic term than at the beginning of the term.

Suggest ways in which the experiment could be done so the psychologist could make a clear conclusion about the effect of identification with an in-group embeddedness and helping a stranger. To break the confounding, the psychologist should conduct the experiment during one time period, such as the end of the semester.

To manipulate embeddedness, half of the participants could write about what they like at their university embedded condition , and half could write about their plans for break control. The psychologist could alternate which condition is tested, or flip a coin to determine which condition each participant would receive.

In a widely distributed news report in March , researchers linked , obesity-related deaths worldwide including about 25, in America to the consumption of sugary beverages such as soda, energy and sports drinks. Using data from the Global Burden of Diseases Study collected by the World Health Organization, the researchers investigated obesity-related deaths due to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

They also obtained data for the per-capita consumption of sugary beverages for the countries in the health study. As sugary-beverage consumption increased, the risk of obesity-related deaths increased. The researchers claimed that overall, 1 in deaths of obese people globally is caused by drinking too many sweetened beverages. Prominent nutritionists have claimed that sugary beverages are a major contributor to the obesity epidemic in the United States.

These data have been used by some government officials to call for limits on the size of soft drinks e. The researchers claim that consumption of sugary beverages leads to an increased risk of obesity-related death, and argue that limiting sugary-beverage consumption is an important step in reducing obesity-related deaths. W hat evidence from this summary can be used to meet the conditions necessary for drawing this causal inference and what evidence is lacking?

This study is correlational.

The researchers noted a covariation between per-capita consumption of sugary beverages and obesity-related deaths diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer. Covariation is the first condition for making a causal inference. We can presume that the second condition, time-order relationship, is also met because consumption of sugary beverages cannot take place after death. However, the third condition, elimination of plausible alternative explanations, is not met.

It is possible some third variable explains the relationship between consumption of sugary beverages and obesity-related deaths. For example, consuming sugary beverages may be associated with other dietary concerns e.

Other potential third variables include amount of exercise or environmental factors. What sources beyond this summary would you want to check before reaching a conclusion about these findings? The March 19, news report was not based on published research, but on a poster presentation at a conference.

Searching the scientific literature on obesity and consumption of sugary beverages would identify more research on this topic, including studies that attempt experimental control over the variables.

Results for the midterm and final exams indicated that students in the clicker class performed better than students in the paper-andpencil and control classes. The researchers concluded that the use of clickers during lectures helps students to perform better on tests, and suggested that the clickers help students to engage in appropriate cognitive processing during learning. W hat evidence is lacking? Be sure to describe the three conditions for a causal inference.

The first condition required for a causal inference is covariation; that is, two variables must vary together or go together. This condition is met in the study with the evidence that test performance covaried with instructional method.

Students receiving the clicker method performed better than students in the paper-and-pencil and control classes. The second condition for a causal inference is time-order relationship or contingency.

In this study, the researchers manipulated the teaching method using three levels clicker, paper-and-pencil, control and observed the dependent variable of test performance. Because the teaching preceded the tests, it would appear that a time-order relationship is present. The third condition for a causal inference is the elimination of plausible alternative causes. This condition is not met in this study because instructional method is confounded with the year each experimental condition was implemented.

Students in the three different classes over the 3-year period may have differed in ways that could account for their test performance. Identify the four goals of the scientific method and explain whether each is met on the basis of findings from this study.

Description could be met because test performance following the three different instructional methods can be described. Furthermore, prediction might be met because the researchers observed a relationship between the type of instructional method and test performance. However, because of the 16 confounding i. An experiment is needed to achieve the goal of explanation, in this case, that the clicker method causes better test performance.

Although these 17 researchers conducted an experiment by manipulating an independent variable the instructional method and observed the effect on the dependent variable test performance , aspects of their procedure raise alternative explanations.

For example, test performance may have differed for the three instructional methods because of differences among the students in the classes over the 3-year period. Reading Research Critically This research summary and the accompanying questions could be used in class for small group discussion.

The research summary and questions could be distributed to students in the class session prior to the scheduled discussion to allow time for students to prepare answers, perhaps as a homework assignment. The research summary and questions appear on the subsequent page to facilitate photocopying.

John J Shaughnessy Eugene B Zechmeister Jeanne S Zechmeister Research methods in ...

The Griskevicius et al. Answers to 1. Reading Research Critically A. What is the independent variable in this study? Identify the specific levels of the independent variable.

In one condition, students were randomly assigned to read a story designed to activate their motive for status. In the second condition, the control condition, students read a neutral non-status story.

What is the dependent variable in this study? They made three choices between a luxurious version of a product and a green version of the product. What information in the summary suggests that the major scientific goal of this study was explanation i. In this experiment, Griskevicius et al. Based on their results for the manipulated independent variable, they demonstrated that when status motives were activated, participants made more green choices, compared to a neutral condition.

How do you think the authors would state the research hypothesis for this study? Going green to be seen: Status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, Based on a theory of altruism, purchasing green products represents a form of self-sacrifice—a choice to forego more luxurious items and instead make purchases that benefit the environment and society.

Thus, consumers who choose green products may not be acting entirely unselfishly; they may perceive an increase in their own social status and prestige when they make green purchases. Griskevicius et al. In the status condition, students read a story in which they imagined graduating from college, looking for a job, and then securing a position that offered opportunities for advancement. Details of the story focused on the high-status features of the workplace. In the control condition, participants read a neutral story designed not to enhance desire for status.

As they read this story, they imagined losing a concert ticket, searching and finding it, and then going to the concert.

Each participant considered three types of products car, household cleaner, and dishwasher , and was asked to choose between a luxurious version of the product and an environmentally friendly green version. Examining Correlational Evidence To help make the point that with only correlational evidence, the investigator can only hypothesize about possible causal factors underlying a relationship between variables, students can be asked to identify possible causal factors in the reports below; that is, they are asked to speculate on why events are correlated.

In a preliminary step to research, the investigator considers possible causal factors, perhaps during discussions with other researchers. As a class or in small groups, students can speculate on causal factors in the following reports of covariation. NOTE: To facilitate use for class handouts, the brief reports appear on the next page. Answers for the brief reports are presented below.

Answers to 2. Examining Correlational Evidence A. When prospective employers view Facebook profiles, they use the information to make judgments about the job candidates. Women adjust their food selection to conform to beliefs about what men find attractive as a means of impression management. That is, why do you think the events are correlated? Note that by identifying potential causal factors, you are generating hypotheses regarding the relationships between variables.

You can also listen to them directly in this page. Assessment Your grade for PSBE is assessed entirely by means of a multiple-choice exam on week This exam will consist of 60 multiple-choice questions, each with three alternatives. The answers to all these questions will have been addressed during the course either in the lectures, or in the reading material.

The exam lasts 2 hours. A second-chance exam, which also comprises 60 multiple-choice questions and lasts 2 hours, is scheduled for week The usual rules about exams apply to this exam too. For the first time this year, the exam will be an electronic one. I have been assured that electronic exams have been running smoothly for a while now at the RUG and the prospect of getting instant feedback on your performance not to mention the hundreds of pages of paper we no longer have to waste was enough to convince me to make the leap.

Note: this information is subject to change, so keep an eye for timetable changes here. Course Evaluation You will have the opportunity to formally evaluate the content and the instruction of the course during the final exam, at the end of Block 2a. However, it is very valuable for me to hear your comments, requests, and recommendations throughout the block.

This leaves the responsibility for scientific integrity education in the hands of individual instructors, supervisors, and mentors. Early experiences and graduate mentorship It might be argued that many undergraduates neither necessarily seek, nor are considered for, graduate studies.

Consequently, evaluation of the undergraduate psychology curriculum might not be the best approach to examining scientific integrity issues.

Research methods in psychology

For instance, while graduate and post-graduate researchers are concerned with research and publication, undergraduates need not be instructed in the specific practices required to conduct research. This argument reflects specious reasoning. First, higher education is directed toward understanding a research area. Researchers must understand the basic theories, experimental methods, and analytic procedures they use directly or indirectly e.

This will minimally make students better consumers of scientific knowledge. Second, both socialization and expertise development require repeated use of social conventions, declarative knowledge, and technical skill.

Given graduate students' first experience with responsible research practices occurs within the undergraduate curriculum, setting an early precedent is necessary.

Moreover, as Lovitts has noted in the context of the doctoral dissertation, explicit conventions are often absent or not communicated to students. If true, this suggests graduate school is not providing adequate instruction to develop these competencies. A likely cause is revealed when we reflect on the experiences of graduate students.

Much graduate work is based on self-directed learning. While courses are offered in advanced statistical techniques e. As research articles are a genre and limited in the extent to which they can discuss the research process, much of the scientific integrity curriculum is necessarily implicit. It is therefore likely to vary depending on the competency and experience of faculty members, reinforcing the importance of mentorship in education in general e.

Concerns over the sufficiency of this form of apprenticeship must be addressed. Once apprenticeship is recognized as a central feature of graduate studies, the extent to which psychologists share beliefs about scientific integrity becomes a central concern. However, psychologists have been found to disagree over the priority of APA standards Seitz and O'Neill, ; Hadjistavropoulos et al.

Similar results have been observed for issues of scientific integrity. Riordan et al. They note that while fabrication was viewed as more detrimental to a researcher's career, psychologists believed that university action was more justified in cases of plagiarism. More recently, John et al. They found that the manipulation of results in an unplanned and unreported manner was a reasonably common practice while also being judged to be dishonest by psychologists.

Conclusions Psychology is no more susceptible to disagreement over its norms than any other science Ioannidis, ; De Vries et al. Consequently, variability of the undergraduate and graduate curricula suggests that a more explicit treatment of scientific integrity issues should be pursued.

Despite the possibility that undergraduate statistics and research methods courses might address some of these issues in a general manner, other topics are not likely to be addressed.

This appears to be reflected in the variable content of research methods textbooks. If departments are unclear as to whether this is the case, tools such as curriculum matrices e.

Curriculum matrices require that faculty members identify core topics that should be covered within a curriculum and assess which courses address this information. When course information is plotted on such a grid, gaps are revealed and can then be addressed. In conjunction with the standards of professional organizations, formal policies, and guidelines can also be developed to ensure greater consistency.

Conflict of interest statement The author declares that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. References American Psychological Association. Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.

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