SALMAN RUSHDIE was born in Bombay, India, and is considered one of the most distinguished living writers of English. He is known as a spokesman for artistic. Midnight's Children by Salman Rushdie. Discussion Questions. 1. Midnight's Children is clearly a work of fiction; yet, like many modern novels, it is presented as. Salman Rushdie is one of the most influential and controversial of modern day . This is what led to the furore over The Satanic Verses. Documents · PDF.
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Salman Rushdie and Translation usaascvb.info i 5/16/ PM Also available from Bloomsbury Salman Rushdie: Contemporary Critical Perspectives . w.a ww —Salman Rushdie qtd. in Michael Silverblatt m co te. Thanks to my unusual, and (by conventional standards) hopelessly inadequate ga sh. PDF | On Jun 1, , Ana Cristina Mendes and others published Salman Rushdie and Translation.
Farishta seeks and finds his lost love, the English mountaineer Allie Cone, but their relationship is overshadowed by his mental illness. Chamcha, having miraculously regained his human shape, wants to take revenge on Farishta for having forsaken him after their common fall from the hijacked plane. He does so by fostering Farishta's pathological jealousy and thus destroying his relationship with Allie. In another moment of crisis, Farishta realises what Chamcha has done, but forgives him and even saves his life.
Both return to India. Farishta throws Allie off a high rise in another outbreak of jealousy and then commits suicide.
Chamcha, who has found not only forgiveness from Farishta but also reconciliation with his estranged father and his own Indian identity, decides to remain in India. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
September Learn how and when to remove this template message Embedded in this story is a series of half-magic dream vision narratives, ascribed to the mind of Farishta. They are linked together by many thematic details as well as by the common motifs of divine revelation, religious faith and fanaticism, and doubt.
One of these sequences contains most of the elements that have been criticised as offensive to Muslims. It is a transformed re-narration of the life of Muhammad called " Mahound " or "the Messenger" in the novel in Mecca " Jahiliyyah ". At its centre is the episode of the so-called satanic verses, in which the prophet first proclaims a revelation in favour of the old polytheistic deities, but later renounces this as an error induced by the Devil.
There are also two opponents of the "Messenger": a demonic heathen priestess, Hind bint Utbah , and an irreverent skeptic and satirical poet, Baal. When the prophet returns to Mecca in triumph, Baal goes into hiding in an underground brothel, where the prostitutes assume the identities of the prophet's wives.
Also, one of the prophet's companions claims that he, doubting the authenticity of the "Messenger," has subtly altered portions of the Quran as they were dictated to him. The second sequence tells the story of Ayesha, an Indian peasant girl who claims to be receiving revelations from the Archangel Gibreel. She entices all her village community to embark on a foot pilgrimage to Mecca, claiming that they will be able to walk across the Arabian Sea. The pilgrimage ends in a catastrophic climax as the believers all walk into the water and disappear, amid disturbingly conflicting testimonies from observers about whether they just drowned or were in fact miraculously able to cross the sea.
A third dream sequence presents the figure of a fanatic expatriate religious leader, the "Imam", in a lateth-century setting. This figure is a transparent allusion to the life of Ruhollah Khomeini in his Parisian exile, but it is also linked through various recurrent narrative motifs to the figure of the "Messenger".
Literary criticism and analysis[ edit ] Overall, the book received favourable reviews from literary critics. In a volume of criticism of Rushdie's career, the influential critic Harold Bloom named The Satanic Verses "Rushdie's largest aesthetic achievement". The book is seen as "fundamentally a study in alienation. These concepts confront all migrants, disillusioned with both cultures: the one they are in and the one they join.
Yet knowing they cannot live a life of anonymity, they mediate between them both. The tone is comic. Fletcher, saw the reaction as ironic. This novel is designed in the structure of a Chinese mystery box with different layers. Based on the central conflict of scholar Ibn Rushd , from whom Rushdie's family name derives , Rushdie goes on to explore several themes of transnationalism and cosmopolitanism by depicting a war of the universe which a supernatural world of jinns also accompanies.
Rushdie has mentored younger Indian and ethnic-Indian writers, influenced an entire generation of Indo-Anglian writers, and is an influential writer in postcolonial literature in general. He opposed the British government's introduction of the Racial and Religious Hatred Act , something he writes about in his contribution to Free Expression Is No Offence , a collection of essays by several writers, published by Penguin in November In he began a five-year term as Distinguished Writer in Residence at Emory University in Atlanta , Georgia, where he has also deposited his archives.
Though he enjoys writing, Salman Rushdie says that he would have become an actor if his writing career had not been successful. Even from early childhood, he dreamed of appearing in Hollywood movies which he later realised in his frequent cameo appearances. Rushdie includes fictional television and movie characters in some of his writings.
He had a cameo appearance in the film Bridget Jones's Diary based on the book of the same name , which is itself full of literary in-jokes. Rushdie has said that he was approached for a cameo in Talladega Nights: We were all supposed to be wearing the uniforms and the helmet, walking in slow motion with the heat haze.
Rushdie collaborated on the screenplay for the cinematic adaptation of his novel Midnight's Children with director Deepa Mehta. The film was also called Midnight's Children. Rushdie announced in June that he had written the first draft of a script for a new television series for the US cable network Showtime , a project on which he will also serve as an executive producer.
The new series, to be called The Next People , will be, according to Rushdie, "a sort of paranoid science-fiction series, people disappearing and being replaced by other people.
Rushdie is a member of the advisory board of The Lunchbox Fund ,  a non-profit organisation which provides daily meals to students of township schools in Soweto of South Africa. He is also a member of the advisory board of the Secular Coalition for America ,  an advocacy group representing the interests of atheistic and humanistic Americans in Washington, D.
He is also a Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism. In , Salman Rushdie appeared as himself in Episode 3 of Season 9 of Curb Your Enthusiasm ,  sharing scenes with Larry David  to offer advice on how Larry should deal with the fatwa that has been ordered against him.
The publication of The Satanic Verses in September caused immediate controversy in the Islamic world because of what was seen by some to be an irreverent depiction of Muhammad. The title refers to a disputed Muslim tradition that is related in the book. According to this tradition, Muhammad Mahound in the book added verses Ayah to the Qur'an accepting three goddesses who used to be worshipped in Mecca as divine beings.
According to the legend, Muhammad later revoked the verses, saying the devil tempted him to utter these lines to appease the Meccans hence the "Satanic" verses. However, the narrator reveals to the reader that these disputed verses were actually from the mouth of the Archangel Gabriel. The book was banned in many countries with large Muslim communities 13 in total: In response to the protests, on 22 January Rushdie published a column in The Observer that called Muhammad "one of the great geniuses of world history," but noted that Islamic doctrine holds Muhammad to be human, and in no way perfect.
He held that the novel is not "an anti-religious novel. It is, however, an attempt to write about migration, its stresses and transformations. Chapter IV of the book depicts the character of an Imam in exile who returns to incite revolt from the people of his country with no regard for their safety. A bounty was offered for Rushdie's death,  and he was thus forced to live under police protection for several years.
When, on BBC Radio 4 , he was asked for a response to the threat, Rushdie said, "Frankly, I wish I had written a more critical book," and "I'm very sad that it should have happened. It's not true that this book is a blasphemy against Islam. I doubt very much that Khomeini or anyone else in Iran has read the book or more than selected extracts out of context.
When we played Wembley, Salman showed up in person and the stadium erupted. You [could] tell from [drummer] Larry Mullen, Jr. Salman was a regular visitor after that.
He had a backstage pass and he used it as often as possible.
For a man who was supposed to be in hiding, it was remarkably easy to see him around the place. On 24 September , as a precondition to the restoration of diplomatic relations with the UK, the Iranian government, then headed by Mohammad Khatami , gave a public commitment that it would "neither support nor hinder assassination operations on Rushdie. Hardliners in Iran have continued to reaffirm the death sentence.
Rushdie has reported that he still receives a "sort of Valentine 's card" from Iran each year on 14 February letting him know the country has not forgotten the vow to kill him and has jokingly referred it as "my unfunny Valentine"  in a sly reference to the song "My Funny Valentine". He said, "It's reached the point where it's a piece of rhetoric rather than a real threat. Rushdie himself has been prevented from entering Pakistan, however.
A former bodyguard to Rushdie, Ron Evans, planned to publish a book recounting the behaviour of the author during the time he was in hiding. Evans claimed that Rushdie tried to profit financially from the fatwa and was suicidal, but Rushdie dismissed the book as a "bunch of lies" and took legal action against Evans, his co-author and their publisher.
Joseph Anton was Rushdie's secret alias. In November , former Indian minister P. Chidambaram acknowledged that banning The Satanic Verses was wrong. Yet more money was added to the bounty in February On 3 August , while Mustafa Mahmoud Mazeh was priming a book bomb loaded with RDX explosive in a hotel in Paddington , Central London, the bomb exploded prematurely, destroying two floors of the hotel and killing Mazeh.
A previously unknown Lebanese group, the Organization of the Mujahidin of Islam, said he died preparing an attack "on the apostate Rushdie". The first martyr to die on a mission to kill Salman Rushdie.
I am sure there are millions of Muslims who are ready to give their lives to defend our prophet's honour and we have to be ready to do anything for that. In , soon after the publication of The Satanic Verses , a Pakistani film entitled International Gorillay International Guerillas was released that depicted Rushdie as a villain plotting to cause the downfall of Pakistan by opening a chain of casinos and discos in the country; he is ultimately killed at the end of the movie. The film was popular with Pakistani audiences, and it "presents Rushdie as a Rambo -like figure pursued by four Pakistani guerrillas".
Two months later, however, Rushdie himself wrote to the board, saying that while he thought the film "a distorted, incompetent piece of trash", he would not sue if it were released. He later said, "If that film had been banned, it would have become the hottest video in town: While the film was a great hit in Pakistan, it went virtually unnoticed elsewhere. Rushdie was due to appear at the Jaipur Literature Festival in January Police contended that they were afraid Rushdie would read from the banned The Satanic Verses , and that the threat was real, considering imminent protests by Muslim organizations.
The four were urged to leave by organizers as there was a real possibility they would be arrested. A proposed video link session between Rushdie and the Jaipur Literature Festival was also cancelled at the last minute  after the government pressured the festival to stop it.
After the attack, Al-Qaeda called for more killings. Rushdie expressed his support for Charlie Hebdo. He said, "I stand with Charlie Hebdo , as we all must, to defend the art of satire, which has always been a force for liberty and against tyranny, dishonesty and stupidity But the fact that you dislike them has nothing to do with their right to speak.
The fact you dislike them certainly doesn't in any way excuse their murder". Rushdie was knighted for services to literature in the Queen's Birthday Honours on 16 June He remarked, "I am thrilled and humbled to receive this great honour, and am very grateful that my work has been recognised in this way. Parliamentarians of several of these countries condemned the action, and Iran and Pakistan called in their British envoys to protest formally.
Mass demonstrations against Rushdie's knighthood took place in Pakistan and Malaysia. Several called publicly for his death. Some non-Muslims expressed disappointment at Rushdie's knighthood, claiming that the writer did not merit such an honour and there were several other writers who deserved the knighthood more than Rushdie.
Al-Qaeda condemned the Rushdie honour. The Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri is quoted as saying in an audio recording that UK's award for Kashmiri-born Rushdie was "an insult to Islam", and it was planning "a very precise response.
Rushdie came from a liberal Muslim family  although he now identifies as an atheist. In a interview with PBS , Rushdie called himself a "hardline atheist". In , in an interview following the fatwa , Rushdie said that he was in a sense a lapsed Muslim, though "shaped by Muslim culture more than any other", and a student of Islam. I do not believe in supernatural entities, whether Christian, Jewish, Muslim or Hindu.
In , in the "hope that it would reduce the threat of Muslims acting on the fatwa to kill him," he issued a statement claiming he had renewed his Muslim faith, had repudiated the attacks on Islam made by characters in his novel and was committed to working for better understanding of the religion across the world.
However, Rushdie later said that he was only "pretending". His books often focus on the role of religion in society and conflicts between faiths and between the religious and those of no faith. Rushdie advocates the application of higher criticism , pioneered during the late 19th century. What is needed is a move beyond tradition, nothing less than a reform movement to bring the core concepts of Islam into the modern age, a Muslim Reformation to combat not only the jihadist ideologues but also the dusty, stifling seminaries of the traditionalists, throwing open the windows to let in much-needed fresh air.
Rushdie is a critic of cultural relativism. He favours calling things by their true names and constantly argues about what is wrong and what is right. In an interview with Point of Inquiry in  he described his view as follows:.
We need all of us, whatever our background, to constantly examine the stories inside which and with which we live. We all live in stories, so called grand narratives. Nation is a story. Family is a story. Religion is a story. Community is a story. We all live within and with these narratives. And it seems to me that a definition of any living vibrant society is that you constantly question those stories. That you constantly argue about the stories.
In fact the arguing never stops. The argument itself is freedom. It's not that you come to a conclusion about it. And through that argument you change your mind sometimes. When you can't retell for yourself the stories of your life then you live in a prison. Rushdie is an advocate of religious satire. He condemned the Charlie Hebdo shooting and defended comedic criticism of religions in a comment originally posted on English PEN where he called religions a medieval form of unreason.
Rushdie called the attack a consequence of "religious totalitarianism" which according to him had caused "a deadly mutation in the heart of Islam".: Religion, a medieval form of unreason, when combined with modern weaponry becomes a real threat to our freedoms. This religious totalitarianism has caused a deadly mutation in the heart of Islam and we see the tragic consequences in Paris today. I stand with Charlie Hebdo, as we all must, to defend the art of satire, which has always been a force for liberty and against tyranny, dishonesty and stupidity.
He strongly supports feminism.
In the s in the United Kingdom, he was a supporter of the Labour Party and championed measures to end racial discrimination and alienation of immigrant youth and racial minorities. He has stated that while there was a "case to be made for the removal of Saddam Hussein ", US unilateral military intervention was unjustifiable. In , Rushdie stated that he supported comments by the then-Leader of the House of Commons Jack Straw , who criticised the wearing of the niqab a veil that covers all of the face except the eyes.
Rushdie stated that his three sisters would never wear the veil. He said, "I think the battle against the veil has been a long and continuing battle against the limitation of women, so in that sense I'm completely on Straw's side. Marxist critic Terry Eagleton , a former admirer of Rushdie's work, attacked him, saying he "cheered on the Pentagon 's criminal ventures in Iraq and Afghanistan".
When Amnesty International suspended human rights activist Gita Sahgal for saying to the press that she thought Amnesty International should distance itself from Moazzam Begg and his organisation, Rushdie said:.
Amnesty … has done its reputation incalculable damage by allying itself with Moazzam Begg and his group Cageprisoners, and holding them up as human rights advocates. It looks very much as if Amnesty's leadership is suffering from a kind of moral bankruptcy , and has lost the ability to distinguish right from wrong.
It has greatly compounded its error by suspending the redoubtable Gita Sahgal for the crime of going public with her concerns. Gita Sahgal is a woman of immense integrity and distinction It is people like Gita Sahgal who are the true voices of the human rights movement; Amnesty and Begg have revealed, by their statements and actions, that they deserve our contempt. Rushdie supported the election of Democrat Barack Obama for the American presidency and has often criticized the Republican Party.
Rushdie was involved in the Occupy Movement , both as a presence at Occupy Boston and as a founding member of Occupy Writers. Rushdie is a supporter of gun control , blaming a shooting at a Colorado cinema in July on the American right to keep and bear arms. He attained American citizenship in and voted for Hillary Clinton in the election. Rushdie has been married four times. He was married to his first wife Clarissa Luard  from to and fathered a son, Zafar born His third wife, from to , was Elizabeth West; they have a son, Milan born The marriage ended on 2 July In , Rushdie had an operation to correct ptosis , a tendon condition that causes drooping eyelids and that, according to him, was making it increasingly difficult for him to open his eyes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British Indian writer. United Kingdom United States . Magic realism satire postcolonialism.
Historical criticism travel writing. Clarissa Luard m. Marianne Wiggins m. Elizabeth West m. Padma Lakshmi m. Further information: The Satanic Verses controversy. Main article: Jaipur Literature Festival. Knighthood of Salman Rushdie.
Biography portal. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 September Oxford Paperbacks, Retrieved 26 March The Times , 5 January Retrieved 1 January Subscription required. Archived from the original on 5 April Retrieved 4 April CS1 maint: BBC News. Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 24 December Books and Writers kirjasto.
Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 13 January Rushdie's dad's secret humiliation in London". Retrieved 13 September South Asian Diaspora. Retrieved 24 December — via www. Retrieved 20 January Man Booker Prizes.