The physics of low-dimensional semiconductors: an introduction / John H. Dav p. cm, had only the smattering of semiconductor physics needed to explain the. Cambridge Core - Condensed Matter Physics, Nanoscience and Mesoscopic The Physics of Low-dimensional Semiconductors . PDF; Export citation. Davies J.H. The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors. An Introduction. Файл формата pdf; размером 23,55 МБ. Добавлен.
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Davies John H. The Physics of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors. An Introduction. Файл формата pdf; размером 7,42 МБ. Добавлен. Davies J.H. The physics of low-dimensional semiconductors.. an introduction ( CUP, )(T)(s). Nick Slow. Loading Preview. Sorry, preview is currently. I regret that the following errors have come to my notice. The corrections are listed with the names of those who noticed them, to whom I am.
Butcher , Paul N. Presenting the latest advances in artificial structures, this volume discusses in-depth the structure and electron transport mechanisms of quantum wells, superlattices, quantum wires, and quantum dots. It will serve as an invaluable reference and review for researchers and graduate students in solid-state physics, materials science, and electrical and electronic engineering.
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FAQ Policy. About this book Presenting the latest advances in artificial structures, this volume discusses in-depth the structure and electron transport mechanisms of quantum wells, superlattices, quantum wires, and quantum dots. Show all.
They include silicon used for large-scale integrated LSI circuits, compound semiconductors used for laser diodes in optical fiber telecommunications, and nitride semiconductors developed for white light-emitting diodes LEDs. One of the great features of semiconductors is that they can switch electric current or emit light at a high energy-efficiency level as well as aid in the downsizing of components.
Remarkable progress has been made in semiconductor technology in the last several decades through comprehensive research on high-quality material growth, device fabrication, and device physics aimed at improving design and performance. If we take a look at the history of the LSI circuit chip, which works similarly to the central processing unit, or brain, of a PC, we can see that improvements in performance have been achieved year-by-year by packaging a larger number of transistors whose sizes have been miniaturized using micro- and nano-fabrication techniques.
The number of transistors per chip currently exceeds 1 billion, which is on the same order as the world population. However, while performance has grown according to this simple scaling rule, the power consumption of the chip has also increased significantly and is becoming a serious problem in terms of the environmental impact and energy costs.
As a result, there are rising technical demands and expectations for low-power devices and circuits that operate on novel principles and concepts. Semiconductors, on the other hand, have attracted much attention as a material for basic research on solid-state physics. Various structures and devices that are artificially fabricated using advanced nanofabrication processes have provided an excellent platform to advance the frontiers of physics.
Therefore, one can say that semiconductor research is a field where science and technology are most beautifully united. In this respect, if we can control new physical phenomena that manifest in novel semiconductor structures, we will be able to create new electronics that achieve the ultimate functionality and performance, which are totally different from those of simple current switches and light-emission devices. This has motivated us in the Physical Science Laboratory of NTT Basic Research Laboratories to conduct research on semiconductors to explore their applications and new physical properties in order to achieve future innovation.
The main results of our recent activities are reviewed in these Feature Articles.
Electronic properties of low-dimensional semiconductors and their ultimate control One of the key players in the functioning of semiconductor devices is an electron that moves around freely in the semiconductors. For example, the most fundamental function of transistors in LSI circuits is to switch electric current by controlling the flow of electrons in semiconductors.
This function is often considered similar to stopping and starting the flow of water. However, this is approximately true only if the size of the semiconductors is large enough. It is now well known in quantum mechanics that an electron—which is an elementary particle with a minimum electric charge of approximately 1.
Furthermore, even as a particle, electrons behave very differently since electrons confined in a small space have a large repulsive Coulomb force between them due to their negative charge, although the amount of the charge is small.
This is in contrast to the case when electrons move around freely in a larger space. We can utilize such an electron-electron interaction to manipulate and control individual electrons.
In addition, electrons have internal states called spin as well as the corresponding magnetic moments. Spin has been applied practically in magnetic memory constructed of ferroelectric metals, but it has also attracted attention recently as a potential information carrier in new information processes.
This is because the use of the flow of spin, that is, spin current, could prevent energy dissipation and heat generation, which are inevitable when electron current—the flow of charge—is used for information processing. As described above, electrons in low-dimensional semiconductors show a variety of unique properties based on quantum mechanics, electron-electron interaction, spin, and their combined phenomena.
Such properties are spawning research subjects from both pure physics and engineering for future science and technology.
Typical structures of low-dimensional semiconductors are often categorized into quantum wells two-dimensional planar structures , quantum wires one-dimensional linear structures , and quantum dots structures confined in all directions, such as cubes and spheres, thereby called zero-dimensional structures. A zero-dimensional structure, in which electrons can be regarded as particles but are dominated by the electron-electron Coulomb interaction, is sometimes called a single-electron island because we can store electrons in it one by one.
The research on low-dimensional semiconductors has a long history, and many studies have been done on their physics as well as device applications such as single-electron devices. Recently, technical progress achieved in both high-quality crystal growth and sophisticated nanodevice fabrication has been opening up the possibility of the ultimate control of electrons.
One of the targets of this study is to achieve electric current standards for metrology.
If we can generate accurate current based on the clocked transfer of single electrons, it may be possible to complete the so-called metrological quantum triangle of electric standards.
The current standards remain to be developed as the final element in addition to the already existing quantum resistance and voltage standards based on semiconductor devices and superconductor devices, respectively. A silicon nanotransistor with ultra-high charge sensitivity is utilized to read out the voltage noise in an ultra-small dynamic random access memory DRAM and is used to measure the quantized values of fluctuating voltages resulting from the thermal fluctuation in the number of electrons in the charge node of the DRAM.
We analyze the thermal noise and determine how it deviates from that expected from the conventional electric circuit model in the tiny device. It is well known that silicon is categorized into a material with an indirect optical transition and has low efficiency in terms of light emission.