URDU LITERATURE (FANTASY). IdentifierDastan-E-AmeerHamzaUrdu. Identifier-arkark://t1vdf. OcrABBYY FineReader Dastan E Ameer Hamza By Maqbool Jahangir Book 04 Ameer Hamza Maidan E Jang Main. byAnonymous. Topics Classic, Fiction, Novel. novel, the short-story and the literary essay discovered it. History of the Dastan-e Amir Hamza in India. The DAH had an advantage over Medieval European.
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Read Book Dastan-e-Ameer Hamza Part by Waqar Azeem on Rekhta Urdu books library. Navigate to next page by clicking on the book or click the arrows. Dastan-e-Ameer Hamza Books Complete Collection (10 Books). Posted by: Unknown What's Related? Children PDF Urdu Stories Collectio. 1 Dastan-e Amir Hamza in text and performance “Once upon a time and a very usaascvb.info> Vandana Sharma, ed.
So, romances were medieval tales of chivalry peppered with love and meant to entertain. Hence, a romance was a long tale, packed with improbable incidents and unbelievable achievements. Is it a coincidence that dastan, a genre of narrative Urdu prose, has striking resemblance with the romances, both in history and nature?
In addition to great physical strength and velour, the main character, named Ameer Hamza, is blessed with ism-i-aazam one of the names of Allah, a kind of divine incantation and some other divine powers.
An interesting character of these dastans is that of a buffoon, an apparent fool who is in fact a great help for the hero who at times lands himself in trouble. The character is brought in by the writer to entertain the reader with a comic relief, as too much of magic and bloodshed might desensitise the reader.
There are a number of comic characters but the most artful of them is called Amar Ayyaar usually mispronounced as Umroo Ayyaar. Faced with neglect and systematic devaluation we now have very scanty evidence for the way in which these Dastans were compiled and performed. Even basic things such as movements, gesticulation, and stage setting are wholly unknown. The current performance is therefore merely an exploration of an Art form which, astonishingly in a culture where poetry was regarded as the supreme art, was considered by some to be of a higher order than poetry itself.
Dastangos were supposed to be a repository not just of language, common speech as well as literary, but also of social mores, craftsmanship, and all other forms of knowledge.
The dastans remain unchanged, only the mode of delivery has been improvised upon. Several other such literature and performances have been overshadowed today due to lack of awareness among readers and improper archiving. But one can thank the digital world that has helped in organizing and archiving many works of literary treasure which otherwise would have been lost in the labyrinths of time. Brass, Paul R. Language, Religion and Politics in North India.
Vikas Publishing House pvt ltd, Dabashi, Hamid. Lakhnavi, Ghalib Abdullah, et al. The Adventures of Amir Hamza. Trans Musharraf Ali Farooqi. Random House, Farooqi, Musharraf Ali.
Middle Eastern Literatures.
The Annual of Urdu Studies. Green, Nile. Asian Folklore Studies. Hanaway, William L. Classical Persian Literature. Iranian studies: Vol 31 Google Book Search. Web 16 Sep, Hosain, Sheikh Sajjad. Dastan-e Amir Hamza: An Oriental Novel. Khuda Baksh Library, Urdu ki Nasri Dastane. Anjuman-e Tarraqi Urdu: Karachi, Joyce, James. New York: Viking Press, Kidwai, Sadiq-ur-Rahman. New Delhi: Rachna Prakashan, Lyons, Malcom. The Arabian Epic: Heroic and oral story-telling.
Vol 1. Cambridge university press, Malik, Aditya. Oral Traditions and Folklore.
Koninklijke Brill NY: Leiden, Web 18 Sep, A Select History. Oxford University Press, Russell, Ralph and Khurshidul Islam. Trans and Ed. Ghalib, Vol 1: Life and letters.
George Allen and Unwin ltd, Sadiq, Muhammad. A History of Urdu Literature. OUP, Singh, Dhananjay. Fables in the Indian Narrative Tradition: D K Print World ltd, Atlantic, Zaidi, Ali Jawad. Sahitya Akademi, Zakir, Mohammed.
A tale of four dervishes. Penguin, Pritchett, Frances. The terms are often used interchangeably. Frances Pritchett draws a difference by using qissas for the short narratives and dastans for the longer narrative.
Akhyana is a narrative based on legends or myths, for example, the narratives in the Vedas that form the context of the hymns, like the narrative of Yama and Yami, Agastya and Lopamudra, and Jabali Satyakama. The Ramayana is classed as an Akhyana, based as it is on the legendary lore of the Rama as the scion of the Raghu race. New Delhi, In other narratives, Muslim saints have been seen to compete between themselves, a tradition in which challengers murndzi' competed in terms of engaging in miraculous or more simply pious acts.
The Oral Background of Persian Epics: Storytelling and Poetry. Brill, In Arabic literary tradition, the genre of storytelling and romance is popularly known as sira or qissa in which the pre-Islamic Arab poets and narrators commemorated the heroism and bravery of tribal chiefs. Sira was marked with biographical details to glorify the heroics of tribal warriors. The advent of Islam revolutionized the genre and tradition of sira which mushroomed into a significant literary form and acquired status of a genre for religious writings employed by Muslim writers and scholars to articulate the biography of Prophet Muhammad.
Even though sira ceased to be used as a genre for oral storytelling the tradition of storytelling sustained itself and thrived throughout the history of Arab tribal era as well as after the advent of Islam.
Cambridge University Press, In Persian Dari and Pashto, the words hikayat and qissa may also be used to describe stories of this kind which are not about specified historical events.
The same can be said about stories in Baluchi called nakl. It is patterned on Thousand and One Nights. Akin to dastans it belongs to the oral Persian literary tradition. There is a difficulty in chronicling the Hamza cycles as also the Arab ones due to its transposition and metamorphosis through time. The degree of assimilation varies to the extent that it may not be clear whether the common denominators are of greater importance than the differences.
Such questions are complicated by diffusion. Abi Talib and other heroes of early Islam. From India this legend passed through Malaya to reach Java, by which time, as is noted in the Comparative Index, it had become confused, in character and detail, with the entirely different Sirat Hamza covered in this study.
It was written something over two hundred years ago, but it is still famous and always will be. He hopes the nawab will like it. The Hamzah romance turns out to be the most popular one. It might appear surprising that even the elementary facts of the dastangos of the nineteenth century are not available because it has never been chronicled. The uniqueness of dastan lies in its oral nature which was brought to print in the nineteenth century. Unlike any avant-garde movements or periods in literature, Dastan-e Amir Hamza is singularly exclusive mode of narration.
Hamid Dabashi in the introduction to the English translation of Dastan-e Amir Hamza titled as The Adventures of Amir Hamza postulates: As soon as you want to nail the fact of a fiction it dodges, evades, and eludes you. That these bare historical facts have subsequently assumed phantasmagoric 4 and fictive dimensions has to do with the popular sentiments and romantic appeal of these characters for subsequent Muslim generations.
Hamza had the reputation of being the strongest man of the tribe of Banu Hashim and fiercely protected his nephew against his enemies from the tribe of Quraish. He followed the Holy Prophet after he migrated to Medina from Mecca. Hamza was killed in the battle of Uhud by a slave Sufiyan. His equally exciting exploits and adventures were the source of many stories that could have been grafted onto the Arab Hamza, thus creating a super-hero who for being the uncle of the Holy Prophet was more acceptable.
He embraced Islam two years after the first revelation. But this has not prevented writers from writing it down or storytellers from proud narrations.
These narratives have long existed in the Islamic world. Parallels of dastan and dastangoi 5 A parallel of dastangoi is found in the Persian literary tradition. Shahnamah found expression as an oral narrative which is narrated and performed by a storyteller or a Naqqal Naqqal tells as well as performs the story. The Persian oral tradition is different from Arabic oral tradition as the story is also performed apart from being told.
There is a parallel cycle of the nature of Amir Hamza in Arab with similarities of names and places like Anushirwan that corresponds to Nausheravan, the vizier Buzurjmihr who is synonymic to Buzurjmehr, the Persian capital Midan and also jinn of Jabal Qaf. But it will be difficult to prove who has borrowed from whom. In his study of the Arabian epic Malcolm Lyons discusses Sirat Hamzat al-Pahlawan13as one of the narratives of Arab but does not mention its source or writer; here is a glimpse: Another apparent confusion between the Persian Chosroes marks the Sirat Hamzat al- Pahlawan.
This introduces Anushirwan and his vizier Buzurjmihr, to whom it adds Numan of Hira, …Internal dating makes Hamza about twenty years old at the start of his adventures, which are extended for at least another fifty years.
For the compilers of this cycle, the historical existence of the Persian Empire was of importance…The Persian emperor is advised to get help from Mecca, and from then on the cycle concerns itself with the eclipse of Persian power and the rise of that of the Arabs. For an audience who enjoyed the battle of Tangier, it was doubtless not much more difficult to accept that Hamza reaches Abyssinia through the barrier of darkness separating it from the jinn of Jabal Qaf….
The version from which the remarkable paintings were made during this period remains unavailable. They are representative of the Mughal School of painting. It reached the court of Emperor Akbar, far into the North, by Akbar was so enamoured of the tale that he commissioned paintings to illustrate its high points.
Humayun ordered them to compose Dastan-e Amir Hamza in paintings. This work spreads over hundred pages in twelve books.
They returned with Humayun to India after his conquest. After Humayun, Akbar continued this work in his tenure. Many have mistakenly accredited Faizi as the author. Brown also remarks that Faizi can be dismissed as the writer of Dastan-e Amir Hamza because he was born in hijri.
According to Badauni, the story of Amir 7 Hamza was in seventeen volumes illustrated over a period of fifteen years.
Fazal comments that from his early youth, Akbar had shown great predilection for painting, he encourages such activities and upholds them as a means of study as well as amusement. It describes the chivalries of Amir Hamzah, the uncle of our prophet Mahomed, and the practical tricks of his friend Amar. Before the birth of our Prophet, he followed the religion of Abraham, and extended his arms and brought the idolatrous tribes to a sense of the True God.
When Mahomed was born, he assumed Islamism and fought for the cause of Islam. What Sajjad Hosain is trying to say here has always been said by practicing dastangos repeatedly. They often attribute the dastans to some big names in order to make it more established as a literature or they claim to have discovered it in an old trunk belonging to their ancestors and the source remains unknown.
But the very fact of lending it an ancient halo marks it as special. Dastan-e Amir Hamza in nineteenth century The most widely circulated among the dastans in nineteenth century India was Dastan-e- Amir Hamza contributed by Abdullah Bilgrami and Ghalib Lakhnavi published by the endeavours of Munshi Naval Kishore in with which I am concerned.
Lakhnavi claimed the Urdu version to be a translation from a Persian one, but the Persian version has never been discovered. But the presence of Indian social life and culture hints us to believe that it 8 was done from a South Asian version of Dastan-e Amir Hamza. This version was already in print for sixteen years when Munshi Naval Kishore thought of printing it with amendments by Abdullah Bilgrami who added ornate passages and verses to it in Persian.
I call it as contribution because none of them wrote the text to its entirety but narrated it to the scribes at Naval Kishore Press.
It was disseminated by folk storytellers and assimilated by individual authors and dastangos like Mahmud Jah, Amba Prasad Raza, Ghalib Lakhnavi etc in north India, particularly Lucknow, only to make them more popular and mesmerizing. It passed on from one generation to other orally by dastangos who freely added mostly added, rarely shortened to the existing corpus of narrative. In the absence of manuscripts and records we do not have many dates.
Initially it existed in the form of rivayat Ali Jawad Zaidi talks of the tradition of hikayat in Urdu which is akin to fables and mythical stories. These forms existed before the short story and the novel sprang up in Urdu in the nineteenth century: Much before the advent of short stories and novels we come across the voluminous literature of dastans and hikayats in Urdu.
Hikayat is a generic term that includes what the western writers have identified as fable, myth and legend, while dastan is synonymous with the western concept of early romance.
But Dastan-e Amir Hamza is unique because of its volume and language. Dastan-e Amir Hamza also has a strong mythical backing which other new epics lacked. They were framed on Dastan-e Amir Hamza 9 and older Persian epics and myths. Talking in the Indian context Indra Nath Choudhuri holds myth to be associated with puranas: The word for myth in Indian context is purana and they are episodical. Here history changes into purana, so one cannot find the unity which one derives out of a cause and effect relationship.
The purana keeps up its subterranean historical origin, but goes on adding, multiplying and expanding its body, aiming to bring home the archetypal meaning of the enduring totality. This has been the case with Dastan-e Amir Hamza. Faruqi ascertains the birth of Dastan-e Amir Hamza to be unknown as it is surrounded by myths and probabilities.
It travels from Persian to Arabic and then to other languages. This variation is a symbolic representation of the brief life in this world, it also shows the fact that people die different deaths. The multiple variations like the sthalapuranas went through various issues narrated and compiled by many dastangos and authors with the onset of printing in India. He took seven years to translate this thousand page adventure. Farooqi has done this translation from the , Ghalib Lakhnavi and Abdullah Bilgrami version published by Munshi Naval Kishore press.
This volume comprises of four books. Farooqi has done a very close translation of the text without disturbing the ornate passages as I have observed while comparing the original with the translation. One of the remarkable features of dastangoi was the opening lines that had to be very poetic and beautiful so that they arrest the listeners at once. Farooqi has retained them very well in his translation.
This is evident from such openings in the text as quoted from the translation below: 10 The fingers of ancient scribes straddle the provident dark reed, galloping their mount in the sphere of rhetoric, and in this enchanting wise, speed the fleet gray steed of the pen in the domains of the page.