Download usaascvb.info, free usaascvb.info download usaascvb.info helps you to store and share unlimited files, with very high. The latest Tweets from dao van vinh (@chinwue): "eBook Điểm Bùng Phát - Malcolm Gladwell full prc, pdf, epub [Kinh doanh - Quản trị] - Đào Tiểu Vũ eBook . The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference (ebook) Điểm bùng phát: làm thể nào những điểu nhỏ bé tạo nện sự khác biệt lớn lao?.

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Dưới đây là tổng hợp sách bán chạy trên tiki phần3, những ebook hỗ trợ định dạng pdf, những quyển sách nên đọc, . Ċ, usaascvb.info Ebook epub. 1 .. Luồng sáng bùng ra, mạnh đến mức chúng tôi gần như không còn thấy gì. Trưởng toán lính là người hồi phục sớm nhất. Ông chườn tay ra, kêu lên “Đức Phật, Đức Phật của chúng ta, Đấng Cao Cả”. . Theosophy Thủ thuật Trường Morya Federation Tâm Lý Học Nội Môn Vũ trụ học Điểm đạo Đời sống. Board index Free Unlimited PDF Downloads Free Downloads. Forum 3. Please, help me to find this tu sach phat giao pdf reader. Thanks!.

Malcolm Gladwell Nh xut bn: Lao ng Nm xut bn: Lm th no chn ng cc t nn x hi ang c chiu hng ngy cng gia tng? Lm th no con mnh khng b nh hng bi thi xu, ang tim nhim gii tr hin nay? Trong im Bng Pht, Gladwell k li nhng cu chuyn tng nh ngu nhin, lt vt, khng quan trng nhng li c th to nn nhng iu phi thng. Theo Gladwell, nhiu vn hin nay chng ta ang phi i mt khng phi l hin tng tuyn tnh, thay i theo chiu hng n nh v d on c. Phng thc vn ng ca cc hin tng x hi rt ging vi din bin ca cc i dch: Trong cun sch nghin cu y sng to ny, Malcolm Gladwell i su khm ph nhng nhnh nh ca i dch, tp trung ch yu vo ba thnh t c bn ca im Bng Pht: Quy lut thiu s, Yu t kt dnh v Sc mnh ca hon cnh. Khng ch c ngha i vi cc chnh tr gia, nhng nh lm lut hay nh hot ng x hi, im Bng Pht cn em n ci nhn mi m v v nhng s vic hng ngy v gip chng ta xy dng chin lc cho tt c cc hot ng t nui dy con ci cho ti iu hnh doanh nghip. Gladwell vit:

Kh nng xy ra ca nhng thay i t ngt l tm im ca im Bng Pht v c l cng l kha cnh kh chp nhn nht. Hu ht nhng ngi M da trng st li di i gn nh ngay lp tc. C mt im Bng Pht cho ti phm bo lc New York hi u nhng nm , cho s hi sinh ca sn phm Hush Puppies cng nh chc chn c nhng im Bng Pht cho s ra i ca bt k tin b cng ngh no. Nm , Sharp tung ra th trng loi my fax gi r u tin v bn c khong Ba nm tip theo, cc doanh nghip vn u n v t t mua my fax.

Trong sut thp nin , loi sn phm ny cng tr nn nh hn, r hn. Cht lng dch v cng c nng cp tt hn. Jonathan Crime, nh x hi hc ca i hc Illinois, xem xt nh hng t mt s hnh mu quan trng trong cng ng nh ngi c vic lm, nh qun l, gio vin nhng ngi c Cc iu tra M Census Bureau nh gi l c a v cao ti cuc sng ca nhng thanh thiu nin sng trong cng khu vc. Nhng i khi chng li khng th gim u n. Ti im Bng Pht, cng mt. Ti cn nh khi cn l mt cu nhc, ti chng kin ch ch nh ca ti ln u tin nhn thy tuyt trng tot.

Thi tit bui sng khi tuyt bt u ri khng lnh hn ti hm trc l bao. Ti hm trc, nhit l hn 1oC v lc ny nhit cha n 0oC. Hay ni cch khc, gn nh mi th vn vn nguyn nhng tht ngc nhin, tt c thay i.

Ma bin thnh mt th g hon ton khc. N l tuyt. Tn trong su thm, chng ta u l nhng ngi theo ch ngha tim tin, k vng ca chng ta c lp ra theo tng giai on. Cn th gii im Bng Pht li l ni nhng iu khng th on trc li tr thnh c th, ni nhng thay i c bn xy ra khng ch n thun l do may mn.

Tri ngc vi tt c d on ca chng ta th gii rt chc chn. Trong hnh trnh nghin cu quan im cp tin ny, ti v bn s gh qua Baltimore tm hiu i dch giang mai honh hnh. Ti cng s gii thiu ba mu ngi rt th v m ti gi l Nh Thng Thi, Ngi Kt Ni v Ngi Bn Hng nhng ngi c vai tr ch cht trong cc i dch truyn khu c kh nng xoay vn c khu v, xu hng v thi trang ca tt c chng ta.

Ti s a bn ti hai chng trnh thiu nhi thnh cng l Sesame Street v Blues Clues, v dn bn bc vo th gii hp dn ca mt ngi n ng ngi gp phn gip hng thu m Columbia nhn ra nn xy dng thng ip nh th no t c tc ng ti a ln khn gi.

Bn cng s cng ti n thm mt cng ty cng ngh cao Delawere v tho lun v nhng im Bng Pht chi phi cuc sng nhm, hay ti h thng giao thng ngm ca New York hiu c s ly lan ca i dch ti phm b xa s nh th no. Mc ch i km sau tt c nhng minh chng va nu u l tr li cho hai cu hi n gin xoay quanh vn m tt c chng ta u mun thc hin c trn cng v nh gio dc, ph huynh, ngi lm marketing, doanh nhn v nh lm lut.

Hai cu hi l: Ba quy lut ca i dchGia thp nin , c thnh ph Baltimore b tn cng bi s ly lan ca cn bnh giang mai. Vy iu g y vn nn giang mai ln cao n th? Ngi ta cho rng chnh crack cocaine l nguyn nhn dn n s tng t bin ca hnh vi tnh dc khng an ton, t dn n s ly lan cc virus nh HIV hay giang mai. N dn d ngy cng nhiu ngi ti mua ma ty nhng khu ph ngho, do lm tng nguy c h s mang mm bnh truyn nhim v ni c tr v ly nhim cho nhng ngi xung quanh. Cng theo trung tm ny, crack cocaine l mt c huch ng k m vn nn giang mai cn bin thnh mt i dch nguy him.

Gio s John Zenilman ca trng i hc Johns Hopkins Baltimore mt chuyn gia v cc bnh ly truyn qua ng tnh dc, li a ra cc gii thch khc. Theo ng, nguyn nhn l do s xung cp ca dch v chm sc y t nhng khu vc ngho nht ca thnh ph. Gio s Zenilman phn nh: Nhng nm , c n Nhng sau , do c nhng vn v ngn sch nn chnh quyn thnh ph quyt nh ct gim ln lt cc c s trn.

S nhn vin y t gim t 17 xung S bnh nhn n khm cha bnh ch cn Chnh sch ct gim ny cng c p dng vi cc lnh vc khc. C nhiu chnh sch thng c tin hnh trc nh chnh sch nng cp my tnh b chm dt.

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Chng bao lu na c, thuc thang cng s cn kit. Hay ni cch khc, ch c Theo gio s Zenilman, mt im no , gia t l Vy l, t nhin nhng ngi c th b ly nhim trong mt tun trc khi c cha tr lc ny li truyn bnh cho ngi khc trong thi gian hai, ba hoc bn tun trc khi c cu cha. Chnh s qu chm tr trong iu tr nh th bin giang mai thnh mt vn nn trm trng hn hn nhng nm trc.

Quan im th ba l ca bc s John Potterat mt trong nhng nh dch t hc hng u trong nc. Hai trong s nhng khu vc xa b cng khai l Lexington Terrace pha Ty v Lafayette Courts pha ng l nhng d n c quy m ln v y l ni tr ng ca hng trm gia nh nhng cng l ni tp trung cha chp ti phm v cc cn bnh truyn nhim. Ngay khi mi ngi bt u di di khi hai khu vc ny, nhng t nn cng gim hn. Nhng g ang din ra ch l mt kiu c khot. N tip tay cho nhng k khn cng.

Nhng phng n di di nh li a nhng ngi nhim bnh ti khu vc khc, mang theo c cn bnh giang mai v li sng, hnh vi ca h. Pha trung tm CDC cho rng crack cocaine chnh l vn. Nhng nm khng phi l thi im xut hin ln u ca crack cocaine Baltimore.

Crack cocaine du nhp vo thnh ph ny t trc rt lu. Theo trung tm ny, gia thp nin , mc nghim trng ca vn nn crack cocaine tng ln, v thay i ny cng khi pht dch giang mai. Tng t, gio s Zenilman cng khng ng khi ni rng cc trung tm STD b ng ca, chng ch b thu hp quy m, t 17 xung cn 10 c s. Cng khng hn nh bc s Potterat cho rng c thnh ph b c khot. Nhng trn thc. Trung tm CDC cp n bi cnh tng th ca dch bnh ti sao s xut hin v pht trin ca mt loi ma ty c th bin i mi trng ca thnh ph n mc y dch bnh vo trng thi bng pht.

Zenilman li ni v chnh bn thn cn bnh. Khi m cc c s khm cha bnh b ct gim, giang mai li c ti pht trin thm ln na. Lc ny, n tr thnh mt cn bnh truyn nhim mn tnh, thnh mt cn bnh gy au n eo ng hng tun lin.

V phn mnh, bc s Potterat li tp trung vo nhng ngi mc bnh. Theo ng, giang mai c truyn i t mt mu ngi nht nh Baltimore nhng ngi ngho kh, dng ma ty v c hnh vi tnh dc ring l. Nu mu ngi ny t ngt b di di t khu vc c tr quen thuc sang nhng khu vc m trc khng c vn nn giang mai th cn bnh s c c hi ly lan bng pht. Hay ni cch khc, i dch khng ch bng pht theo mt hng duy nht. Khi mt i dch bng pht, n vt ra khi trng thi cn bng v bng pht bi c mt iu g xy ra, mt thay i no xut hin mt, hai hay c ba phm vi ni trn.

Quy tc thiu s; Yu t kt dnh v Sc mnh ca hon cnh. Xt trn tng th ca vn , cch ngh trn khng phi l mt khi nim c bit tin b. Sau , Potterat tin hnh phng vn ngi nm trong phn nhm rt nh v pht hin ngi trong s h khng ly bnh lu sang ai khc hoc nu c, ch ly cho duy nht mt ngi. Nhm bnh nhn ny c ng gi l nhm khng ly truyn. Cn nhm khin i dch pht trin nhng ngi truyn bnh sang hai, ba, bn, nm hoc su ngi khc l ngi cn li. Ni cch khc, trong ton b Colorado Springs vi dn s khong Vy ai s thuc nhm ngi?

H khng ging bn hay ti. H l nhng ngi m cuc sng thuc v bng m, quan h tnh dc vi nhiu ngi hn mc bnh thng rt nhiu. H l nhng ngi c cuc sng v hnh vi khng nm trong quy phm x hi thng thng. McGee l mt ngi cao ln cao khong 1m90, hp dn v l mt ti nng trong ngh thut trt bng k ht hn cc c gi tr vi nh ho quang trn sn bng. Hn c bit thch tn tnh nhng c gi tui 13, Hn mua tng h trang sc t tin, mi h vi vu trn chic Cadillac sang trng, sau l ma ty liu cao v quan h xc tht.

Trong khong thi gian t n , trc khi b bn cht, hn quan h vi t nht c gi v l tt nhin, hn truyn li cho ti thiu 30 ngi trong s h cn bnh cht ngi HIV. Cng trong khong thi gian hai nm , cch y dm v pha Buffalo, New York cn c mt v d khc v loi i ca bt lng ny. Hn ta lm vic nhng khu ph bn hn trong trung tm Jamestown. Tn hn l Nushawn Williams, ngoi ra hn cn c bit n vi nhng ci tn khc nhau nh Co gi, t Hn la gt rt nhiu c gi, ng tn bn n nm cn h khc nhau quanh thnh ph.

Ngh nui sng hn l bun lu ma ty ngc t Bronx v. Nh mt nh dch t hc vn khng l lm vi nhng trng hp tng t ni thng tut vi ti: G qu l thin ti.

Ging nh i Ca, Williams cng rt hp dn. Hn thng mua tng cc c bn gi hoa hng, mc h nghch ngm b tc di ca mnh, n chi trc tng thu m vi cn sa v ru mnh do hn ch tr ti cc cn h ring. Ti ln ging vi anh ta ba hay bn ln g mt m. Mt c b c ca hn k li Ch c ti v Williams, chng ti tic tng thng xuyn Khi Co gi xong th li n lt cc chin hu ca anh ta.

Hin ti, Williams b tng vo t nhng hn vn c bit n nh k gieo rc virus HIV cho t nht 16 ph n. C ny tha nhn quan h tnh dc vi 2. Tt c h u thuc vo nhm nhng ngi khin i dch bng pht. Cc loi i dch x hi cng din ra theo cng cch thc trn. Chng cng b iu khin b n lc ca mt nhm ngi c bit. Trong trng hp ny, h khng khc bit vi nhng ngi khc bi bn nng tnh dc m bi tnh x hi, ngh lc, kh nng hiu bit v nh hng ca h i vi s ng x hi. Cn trong trng hp ca Hush Puppies, b n ln nht chnh l bng cch no nhng i giy Hush Puppies di chn s t dn Hippi thiu s ngi vi phc trang ph cch ti khu vc c dn ngho ca Manhattan li c by bn dc cc khu ph thng mi ln trn khp nc M.

Mi lin h gia East Village v khu vc min trung nc M l g? Theo Quy lut thiu s, cu tr li l: Trc y, giang mai ch l mt cn bnh truyn nhim cp tnh, do , khi mc phi, ngi ta c th c cha khi nhanh chng trc khi kp ly sang ngi khc.

Tuy nhin, chnh chnh sch ct gim bin giang mai tr thnh mt cn bnh mn tnh. Bnh nhn mang trong mnh cn bnh ny bnh cho ngi khc trong khong thi gian ko di hn ln bn n nm ln so vi bnh thng.

Trong lnh vc siu vi khun hc, y cng l mt quy lut rt ni ting. Cc t cm ly lan trong giai on u ca dch khi thi tit chuyn sang ng rt khc so vi qu trnh ly lan trong giai on cui ca dch. Dch cm ni ting nht xy ra nm Th nhng sut ma h, virus li bin i rt l v su thng sau, n cp i mng sng ca 20 n 40 triu ngi trn khp th gii.

Mc d cch thc ly lan ca virus khng thay i nhng chnh bn thn virus t nhin li tr nn nguy him gp bi. Trong c th chng ta lun c virus b nhim ngay t khi mi sinh hoc nhim ngay lp tc sau khi sinh.

Phn ln nhng virus ny v hi. H thng min dch trong c th lun d dng ch ng c chng tr nhng loi virus nh HIV. Khi xm nhp vo c th, nhng virus ny s ph hy h thng min dch, khin h thng tr nn khng th kim sot c v gy ra nhng ca t vong do bnh phi. Trn thc t, PCP uc coi nh mt du hiu gn nh chc chn v s hin din ca virus ny. Bc s Goudsmit ct cng lt li cc ti liu y hc, tm kim cc trng hp mc PCP. V nhng g tm c s khin ngi ta phi n lnh. Ngay khi chin tranh th gii ln th hai chm dt, mt t dch PCP bt ngun t thnh ph cng Baltic ca Danzig, ri lan rng khp trung tm chu u.

Bc s Goudsmit tin hnh phn tch mt trong nhng th trn chu nh hng nng n nht ca i dch, khu m Heerlen ca tnh Lumburg, H Lan. Trong th trn ny c mt bnh vin tp hun dnh cho nhng b m sp sinh mang tn Kweekschool voor Vroed Vrouwen. Trong khong thi gian t thng 6 nm ti thng 7 nm c 89 a tr trong tri bo tr ny mc PCP v 24 ca t vong. Bc s Goudsmit cho rng s vic ny l mt dng tin i dch HIV. V l do no , virus ny xm nhp vo bnh vin, ri ly t a tr ny sang a tr khc khi s dng cng mt bm kim tim truyn mu.

Kh nng ln nht l c t nht mt ngi ln c th l mt ngi th m no t Phn Lan, Czechoslovakia hay mang virus ti Limburg. Ngi ny cht v AIDS nhng rt c th anh ta truyn virus gy bnh cho v v con mnh. Ngi v hoc ngi bn gi b nhim c th sinh n trong tri bo tr. Cc ng kim tim khng c tit trng v nhng vt thng h lm ly lan virus t a tr ny sang a tr bnh thng khc. Mt iu k l nhng c tht trong ton b cu chuyn ny l khng phi tt c nhng a tr mc bnh u cht.

Con s t vong ch chim mt phn ba. S tr cn sng st lm c iu n ngy nay vn gn nh khng tng. Cc em nh bi virus HIV, loi b n ra khi c th v tip tc sng khe mnh.

Vic ly lan nhanh chng cn nm chnh nhng thay i ni ti ca cn bnh ny. Cho d l nguyn nhn no i chng na, virus HIV tr nn nguy him hn gp bi. Mt khi b ly nhim, bn s mang bnh sut i. Virus k sinh mi trong c th bn. Chng ta thng mt rt nhiu thi gian suy tnh xem lm sao cc thng ip chng ta ni ra d ly lan hn lm sao tip cn cng nhiu ngi cng tt bng tng v sn phm ca chng ta. Nhng im kh nht trong giao tip thng l vn tm ra cch m bo mt thng ip s khng i t tai ny sang tai kia ca ngi nghe.

Kt dnh c ngha l mi thng ip s gy ra c tc ng, bn khng th loi n ra khi suy ngh, n dnh vo tr nh ca bn. V d, khi sn phm thuc l u lc Winston tung ra th trng hi u nm , cng ty trng ln khu hiu Winston tastes good like a cigarette should Winston hng v ch thc ca thuc l. Lc , cch chi ch ngc v c phn khiu khch gia t like v as gy ra phn ng rt ln trong cng chng Nu dng ng ng php th phi l as ch khng phi like. Khng nhng to ra ip m, like cn c ngha l yu thch. Tng t, sn phm u dy giy bt st ca Wendy ni ting vi cu ni Wheres the beef?

Chi ch Beef. Beef thng c ngha l con b nhng n cng c ngha l li phn nn. Hm hnh cu hi Con b u? Trong cun hi k vit v s nghip kinh doanh thuc l, Richard k rng nhng nhn vin Marketing ti R, J.

Reynords a im bn sn phm Winston rt thch cu slogan ca Wendy v cho ra mt cu slogan nhm phn i nhng li bi ht lp m c phn iu trn i v truyn hnh; bt chc c phn chm bim c php ca h nh mt cch ni thng tc ch khng hn l vnh ng php.

Mt vi thng sau khi ra mt, nh vo sc ht ca cu slogan, sn phm Winston thng ln. Mt vi nm sau, Winston tr thnh nhn hiu c sn phm bn chy nht trong nc. Ngy nay, nu v tnh but ming vi bt k mt ngi M no cu Winston tastes good, h s b sung cho bn ngay v sau Like cigarette should.

Nu quan im ca ti khng ng tin, ti sao bn li thay i hnh vi ca mnh: Yu t kt dnh cho rng c rt nhiu phng php c th mt thng ip c tnh ly lan tr nn ng nh; v nhng thay i tng i n gin trong hnh thc trnh by, cch t chc thng ip c th to nn nhng khc bit ln trong mc tc ng ca thng ip. N hi ging tm bn vn c cc s cnh st treo trn tng, c ghim nh du nhng khu vc xut hin hnh vi phm ti. Trn tm bn ca gio s Zenilman, nhng khu vc ln cn ca pha ng v Ty Baltimore u c xu hng dy c cc chm sao mu en.

T hai im nng trn, cc trng hp lan rng dc theo hai giao l trung tm l ranh gii chia i chng. Vo ma h khi tnh hnh cc bnh ly lan qua ng tnh dc mc nh im, nhng chm sao en tri dc theo giao l dn ra khi ng v Ty Baltimore dn li thnh chm kn c. Cn bnh ang honh hnh. Khi thi tit chuyn sang ng, ngi dn hai khu vc trn trong nh nhiu hn, trnh xa khi nhng qun bar, nhng cu lc b, hay cc gc ph ti tm ni. V nh vy, nhng chm en trong cc khu vc cng bin mt dn. Nh c biu din trong bn ca gio s Zenilman, cc i dch u b nh hng mnh m bi yu t hon cnh.

Khng ch c nhng yu t bnh thng nh thi tit mi nh hng ln hnh vi m c nhng yu t nh nht, m h nht v khng ng ti nht cng c th tc ng ln cch thc chng ta hnh ng. Chng hn nh, mt trong nhng v vic ni ting nht trong lch s New York l ci cht do b m ca mt ph n tr tn l Kitty Genovese nm Genovese b mt k qu khch ui theo v hnh hung ba ln trn ph trc khi b hn m cht.

Trong sut na ting ng h din ra s vic, 38 ngi hng xm ca c ng xem t ca s nh h. Tuy nhin, trong sut thi im , khng mt ai trong s 38 nhn chng gi in cu cu cnh st. V vic ny gy ra vng lun qun tha trch nhim ln nhau v sau tr thnh hnh nh tng trng cho li sng lnh lng, v k c trng ca lp ngi thnh th. Rosemhal, ngi sau ny lm bin tp ca t bo New York Times vit trong cun sch k v s kin ny nh sau: Khng ai c th l gii c ti sao trong c 38 ngi, khng h c mt ai nhc in thoi gi cnh st khi chng kin c gi b tn cng v chnh h khi ri vo trng hp cng khng ni c nguyn do.

Nu mt ai b bao vy v dn p bi hng triu ngi khc, bo v mnh khi nhng ng lin min, cch duy nht l c gng pht l ht thy mi vic. Thi dng dng i vi ngi hng xm v nhng rc ri ca ngi l mt phn x c iu kin trong cuc sng New York hay bt k thnh ph ln no khc. Cuc sng tch bit trong cc thnh ph ln khin con ngi ta tr nn c c v v cm. Tuy nhin, ton b cu chuyn v c gi xu s Genovese ha ra li phc tp hn v cng ng lu tm hn.

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H sp xp mt hoc hai dng trng hp khn cp vo nhng tnh hung khc nhau xem nhng ngi no s n v gip. Yu t l s lng nhn chng c mt ti hin trng xy ra s vic. Chng hn, trong mt th nghim, Latane v Darley mt sinh vin mc bnh thn kinh mt mnh trn tng cn trng. Nhng ngi ny cho rng c ai gi in bo hoc gi nh v khng c ai hnh ng nn chc nhng du hiu hin nhin nh ting ng kinh pht ra t cn phng bn cnh hay khi bc ra t ca khng thc s l vn cn ch.

Theo cc nh tm l x hi nh Latane v Darley, khi trong trng hp ca Kitty Genovese, vn khng phi l ch khng ai gi in cho cnh st d c n 38 ngi nghe thy ting tht ca c gi; m nm thc t khng ai gi bi v c 38 ngi cng nghe thy. Tht tr tru! Nu b tn cng trn mt con ph vng ch c mt nhn chng duy nht, c l Genovese c th sng. Hay ni cch khc, cha kha khin mi ngi thay i hnh vi chng hn nh, quan tm nhiu hn ti hng xm bt hnh i khi li nm nhng chi tit nh nht trong hon cnh tc th.

Quy tc Sc mnh ca hon cnh cho rng con ngi nhy cm vi mi trng hn l h cm nhn. Chng l kim ch nam dn chng ta i ti im Bng Pht. Cun sch s bm st cc quy lut ny v p dng chng trong nhng tnh hung nan gii cng nh cc i dch xut hin th gii quanh ta. Ba quy lut ca im Bng Pht s h tr chng ta nh th no trong vic hiu r, chng hn nh vn nn ht thuc ca tr v thnh nin, hin tng truyn khu, ti phm hay s xut hin ca mt cun sch bn chy?

Revere lng nghe mt cch nghim tc v y khng phi l tin n u tin trong ngy. Trc , ng cng c nghe v s lng bt thng cc s quan ngi Anh tp hp ti khu cu cng ln LongWharf Boston, nh to v chuyn. Cng trong bui sng hm , trn bn cng ngi ta cn chng kin rt nhiu lnh thy th Anh dng nh ang tt t hon thin nt nhng vic cn li cho cng on cui v mt mc ch no.

Khi chiu n, Revere v mt ngi bn thn Joseph Warren cng thm chc chn rng qun i Anh ang rc rch chun b cho mt nc c ln, nhng ngi ta n i t rt lu trc , hng vo tip cn th trn Lexington pha ng bc Boston bt gi hai nh lnh o thuc a l John Hancook v Samuel Adams ri tip tc nh vo th trn Concord, nhm chim gi cc kho sng ng v n dc do qun i thuc a ct gi.

Nhng g xy ra tip theo tr thnh mt huyn thoi lch s, mt cu chuyn c truyn li cho lp lp th h hc sinh M. Hai ng quyt nh cnh bo tt c mi ngi quanh Boston v vic qun Anh ang chun b hnh ng; qun i Boston c th kp thi ng ph. Revere c a nhanh qua khu cu cng Boston ln mt chic ph Charlestown. T y, Revere i nga v bt u chuyn d hnh 5 ti Lexington. Trong hai gi ng h, ng vt qua c 13 dm ng. Trn mi th trn dc theo hnh trnh qua Charlestown, Medford, Bc Cambridge, Metonomy, ng g ca tng nh, truyn t li s vic, ri thng bo cho nhng nh lnh o a phng bit qun i Anh sp n v yu cu h ni cho nhng ngi khc.

Chung nh th c ging ln. Ting trng cng bt u vang di. Do nhng tin tc Revere mang n lm xut hin nhng ngi a tin khc nn tin tc lan truyn nh mt loi virus cho ti khi ci bo ng ku vang trn ton. Tin tc xut hin LincolnMassachusetts lc 1 gi sng, n Sudbury lc 3 gi, n Andover cch 40 dm v pha ng bc Boston lc 5 gi v 9 gi sng hm truyn ti Ashby tn tt pha bc xa xi gip vi Worcester. Cui cng, khi qun Anh bt u tn cng vo Lexington sng ngy 16, s xm nhp ca h vo khu ngoi vi th trn gp phi s khng c quyt lit v rt c t chc mt iu nm ngoi d liu.

Cng ngy hm ti Concord, qun i thuc a gy tn tht v bc lui hon ton qun Anh. Bc ngot ny bt u cuc chin c bit n l Cuc Cch Mng M. Hnh trnh ca ngi th bc Paul Revere c l l minh chng ni ting nht v i dch truyn khu trong lch s. Mt mu tin c bit vt mt qung ng di trong mt thi gian ngn, nh ng ton b mt vng ng ln chin u chng li k th. L d nhin khng phi tt c mi dch truyn khu u bt ngun t nhng tin tc git gn.

Tuy vy, hon ton c th ni rng truyn khu ngay c trong k nguyn ca thng tin i chng v nhng chin dch qung co tiu tn hng triu triu la vn l dng thc giao tip quan trng bc nht ca loi ngi.

C bao nhiu ln trong nhng trng hp trn quyt nh ca bn v ni tiu tin chu nh hng rt ln t li gii thiu ca bn b? C rt nhiu nh qun tr trong lnh vc qung co cho rng chnh v nhng n lc marketing ang c mt khp ni trong thi i ngy nay, nn sc ht ca dch truyn khu tr thnh hnh thc thuyt phc duy nht m hu ht chng ta u hng ng.

Nhng trn ht thy, nhng li truyn khu vn l mt n s. Ngy ni ngy, con ngi truyn cho nhau mi loi tin tc nhng him c trng hp no lm nhen nhm ln mt dch truyn khu. Ti rt thch mt nh hng gn nh v gii thiu n cho bn b c 6 thng ri. Vy m n vn vng khch. S ng h ca ti r rng vn cha lm khi pht dch truyn khu, d rng c nhng nh hng ln cn i vi ti th khng tt bng nh hng cng m ra v trong vng vi tun c rt ng khch. Cu hi y l ti sao mt s tng, xu hng v thng ip thng hoa cn s khc th khng? V trng hp chuyn d hnh ca Paul Revere, cu tr li cho k tch ny c v r rng.

Revere mang n mt thng tin cp bch rng qun Anh ang tin n. Nhng khi suy xt k cng hn v s kin bui ti hm , cch gii thch trn li khng tha ng. Cng thi im khi Revere bt u cuc hnh trnh ca mnh ti pha ng v Bc Boston, mt ngi ng ch ngi th thuc da tn l. William Dawes cng khi hnh vi cng mt mc ch cp bch l ln ng ti Lexington, th trn pha Ty ca Boston.

Ngi ng ch ny cng mang theo thng ip tng t, bng qua nhiu th trn, vt qua hng dm ng nh Revere thc hin. Nhng cuc hnh trnh ca Dawes khng thit lp c li phng th khu vc ngoi vi. Ch huy qun i a phng cng khng c bo ng.

Thc t l rt t nam gii trong mt th trn trng yu m Dawes i qua th trn Waltham tham gia chin u trong ngy xy ra chin s. S tht khng phi nh vy. Khi ngi dn Waltham nhn ra qun Anh n th qu mun. Nu tht s tin tc vn hnh theo mt dng dch truyn khu th c l Dawes cng ni ting nh Revere ri. Nhng Dawes khng ni ting! Vy ti sao Revere thnh cng cn Dawes th khng? Cu tr li cho nhng thng hoa ca mi i dch x hi ph thuc rt nhiu vo s tham gia ca nhng ngi s hu, nhng hnh mu him hoi v c bit ca c u i x hi.

L do thng tin t pha Revere bng pht cn t pha Dawes th khng l do s khc bit gia hai c nhn ny. Tuy nhin, y ti ch n c v d v nhng nhm ngi chung ch ba bi, c ch tm lm dng tnh dc ng vai tr ht sc quan trng trong cc i dch ca nhng cn bnh ly lan qua ng tnh dc.

Ni dung ca c chng cp n nhng ngi lin i trc tip ti cc i dch x hi v yu t no khin cho nhng ngi nh Revere li khc bit vi nhng ngi nh Dawes. Nhng con ngi ny ang hin hu xung quanh chng ta. Nhng chng ta thng mc phi sai lm khi nh gi vai tr quan trng ca h trong cuc sng. Con ngi c gn kt nh th no? C phi tt c chng ta u thuc v nhng th gii tch bit, vn hnh ng thi nhng vn c lp vi nhau do nhng mi lin kt gia hai ngi bt k, bt c u trong th gii ny u t i v xa vi?

Hay ht thy chng ta ang gn kt cht ch ln nhau trong mt mng li rng ln v n khp? Hay trong cch thc m Milgram t vn v cng mt cu hi khai m ton b chng ny; c th l lm th no mt tng, mt xu hng hay mt mu tin nh Qun Anh s tin nh li lan rng trong dn. Mc ch ca tin s Milgram l kim chng nghi vn ny bng nhng l th dy chuyn6.

Trong bu phm l tn v a ch ca mt nhn vin mi gii chng khon lm vic Boston nhng sng ti Sharon, Massachusetts. Mi ngi li c hng dn vit tn v a ch ca mnh ln bu phm v li tip tc gi chng cho mt ngi bn hay mt ngi quen m h cho rng khi nhn c bu phm, nhng ngi ang gn ngi mi gii chng khon kia.

Gi s bn ang Omaha, bn c mt ngi anh h gn Boston, bn c th gi bu phm cho ngi y vi l do rng: D bn thn anh ta khng bit nhn vin mi gii kia nhng rt c kh nng anh ta c th lin lc c vi ngi mi gii chng khon qua hai, ba hay bn bc na. Milgram pht hin ra rng hu ht mi l th u n tay ngi mi gii chng khon kia sau nm hoc su bc. Cuc th nghim ny ng thi l khi ngun ca khi nim Su mc phn cp. Hin nay, cm t trn tr nn quen thuc n mc bt ng trong nhng khm ph ca Milgram mt i.

Phn ln mi ngi thng khng c quan h bn b rng ri v khng c nhiu kiu bn. Nhn chung, con ngi thng chn bn cng la tui v cng ng cp. Tuy nhin, khi ngi ta sng gn gi nhau, tui tc v a v s tr nn khng quan trng na. Mt nghin cu khc c thc hin vi sinh vin ti i hc Utah cho thy khi hi mt sinh vin ti sao anh ta li thn thin vi mt ngi khc, anh ta s tr li rng l do h c chung quan im.

Tuy nhin trn thc t, nu hi cn k c hai ngi v quan im ca h, ta s nhn ra iu h tht s chia s chnh l nhng hnh ng ging nhau. Chng ta kt bn vi nhng ngi chng ta lm vic cng cng ging nh chng ta lm bn vi nhng ngi c nt tng ng vi mnh.

Ni cch khc, chng ta khng tm kim bn b. Chng ta ch kt giao vi nhng ngi cng c chung mt tiu khng gian vt l m chng ta ang hot. Nh mt iu lut, dn chng Omaha khng bao gi chu lm bn vi nhng ngi sinh sng khu Sharon, Massachusetts, cch xa h na chiu di t nc.

Khi ti hi anh bn thn thng minh ca mnh xem th anh ngh cuc th nghim s din tin qua bao nhiu bc trung gian. Anh y c tnh s ngi trung gian cn thit l hoc hn trong hnh trnh trung chuyn t Nedbraska ti Sharon. Milgram ghi li: Rt nhiu ngi cng on chng trong khong v tt c u ngc nhin khi bit s bc trung gian trung bnh ch cn nm l.

Do , trong mt chng mc no , thc t khng nht qun vi trc gic. Vy lm th no gi bu phm n c Sharon ch qua nm bc trung gian nh th? Cu tr li l: V d, khi Milgram phn tch th nghim ca mnh, ng pht hin ra rt nhiu chui lin lc xut pht t Omaha ti Sharon u phng theo khun to khng i xng.

Trong 24 l th ngi mi gii chng khon nhn c theo a ch nh, c 16 l th c gi n t cng mt ngi ngi kinh doanh qun o m Milgram gi l Jacobs. Cng vi 24 l th ngi nhn vin ny nhn c ti vn phng lm vic, phn ln c gi t hai ngi n ng khc c Milgram gi l Brown v Jones. Th xem xt k s vic. Hng chc ngi c chn la ngu nhin trong thnh ph rng ln ti Midwestern, M gi cc l th ring r vi nhau.

Mt s khc gi cho h hng. S khc li gi nhng l th cho ng nghip c. Mi ngi u c cch thc ring. Tuy nhin, n cui cng, khi tt c cc chui lin lc ring bit v c th hon thnh, c n mt na s l th c bn tay tham gia ca Jacobs, Jones v Brown. Khi nim Su mc phn cp khng c ngha l tt c mi ngi u lin lc vi nhng ngi khc ch trong su bc trung chuyn m c ngha l ch c mt s t ngi c lin h vi nhng ngi khc trong mt vi cng on, v s cn li trong chng ta li c lin kt vi th gii thng qua thiu s nhng ngi c bit ny.

C mt phng php n gin kho st t m tng trn nh sau: Vi mi trng hp, bn hy suy xt li mi chuyn v trc cho n khi xc nh c c nhn phi chu trch nhim hon ton trc cc ng thi ca mt lot nhng lin kt dn dt n mi quan h bn b kia. Xt trng hp Bruce, mt ngi bn c ca ti chng. Ti gp anh hi cp 1 do ti thuc vo bn hnh thnh lin kt. Ti bit Nigel v trng i hc cu ta cng Tom ti quen Nigel hi nm th nht i hc khi c Tom mi chi bng giao hu. Do vy, Tom l ngi chu trch nhim v Nigel.

Ti c ngi bn tn Amy. Ti quen vi Amy khi c bn Katie ca Amy dn c ti nh hng ni ti ang dng ba ti. Ti cng bit r Katie v c l bn thn nht ca c bn ti Larissa.

Cn ti bit Larissa khi uc Mike A. Ti bit Mike A. Nu khng c Jacob, ti s khng quen Amy. Tng t nh th, ti gp c bn Sarah S. Sarah ti cng mt nh vn tn David ngi n d theo li mi ca c nhn vin cng s Tina. Tina li l ngi ti quen bit thng qua bn ti l Leslie. Ti bit Leslie v ch gi ca Leslie l Nina l bn ca ti ngi ti bit qua ngi bn cng phng Maura.

Maura n chung vi ti bi Maura lm vic cng mt nh vn khc tn l Sarah L. V nh vy, nu khng c Jacob, ti s khng quen Sarah S. Thc t l khi ti r li ton b danh sch 40 ngi bn th 30 ngi trong s , d bng cch ny hay cch khc, u dn ngc v anh bn Jacob. Vng quan h x hi ca ti trn thc t khng phi l mt vng trn.

N l mt hnh Kim t thp. Trn nh Kim t thp l mt c nhn n l - anh bn Jacob ngi chu trch nhim trc i a s nhng mi quan h to ra nh hng trong cuc sng ca bn thn ti. Khng nhng khng i theo ng trn, vng x hi cn khng phi ca ring c nhn ti na. N thuc v Jacob. N ging nh mt cu lc b m Jacob mi ti tham gia cng. Nhng con ngi kt ni chng ta vi th gii, bc cu ni lin Omaha vi Sharon, dn dt chng ta tham gia vo vng trn x hi nhng ngi chng ta t nim tin su sc hn mc chng ta nhn ra c gi chung l Ngi Kt Ni, nhng ngi c kh nng c bit l em th gii li gn nhau.

Tiu ch u tin, r rng nht l nhng Ngi Kt Ni quen bit rt rng ri. Tt c chng ta u bit nhng ngi ging nh vy. Nhng ti khng cho rng chng ta ginh nhiu thi gian ngh n tm quan trng ca nhng ngi ny. Thm ch ti cng khng chc liu hu ht chng ta c thc s tin rng nhng mu ngi bit tt c mi ngi thc s bit ht thy mi. Di y l mt bn lit k tn h c chn ngu nhin hon ton t cun danh b in thoi Manhattan. Tra dc theo danh sch v nh du mi khi bn thy mt ci h no l h ca mt ngi bn bit nh ngha cho t bit y rt rng.

Trng hp c nhiu hn mt ci tn vn c tnh. Hay ni cch khc, nu ci tn l Johnson v bn bit 3 ngi c h nh vy, bn hy nh 3 du. Trc nghim ny c tin hnh trn t nht l khong hn chc nhm ngi.

Nhm u tin l ton b sinh vin nm u trong lp hc Vn minh Nhn loi ti trng i hc ca thnh ph Manhattan. Tt c sinh vin trong lp u vo tui 19 Rt nhiu ngi trong s h mi di c sang M v u thuc nhm gia nh c thu nhp trung bnh hoc thp. Ti cng a bn trc nghim ny cho mt nhm nhng nh gio dc sinh l v cc vin s ti mt hi tho Princeton, New Jersey. Nhm ngi ny u thuc tui 40 n 50 v phn ln l ngi da trng, c hc vn cao; nhiu ngi trong s h c hc hm gio s v rt giu c.

S im trung bnh ca h l Tip theo , ti gi bn trc nghim ti mt nhm mu chn ra kh ngu nhin t nhng ngi bn v ngi quen ca ti. Phn ng trong nhm ny l k gi v chuyn vin vo khong gn hoc ngoi 30 tui. Trung bnh im s ca h l C ba kt qu trn u khng my bt ng. Sinh vin khng c c vng trn quen bit rng nh ca nhm 40 tui.

Nhng ngi c chuyn mn vi thu nhp cao hn s quen bit rng ri hn s ngi mi nhp c, c mc thu nhp thp. Ti cho rng iu ny cng hon ton d hiu. Chc chn, nhng ngi kinh doanh bt ng sn s quen bit rng ri hn nhng tay hacker my tnh. D vy, tm im gy kinh ngc l mc rng ri ca quy m sp xp. Trong nhm sinh vin i hc, s im thp nht l 2 v cao nht l Trong nhm mu chn ngu nhin, s im cn di l 9 v cn trn l Ngay c nhm chuyn gia tham d hi tho Princeton nhm ngi c mc tng ng cao trong tui, trnh hc vn v thu nhp trong gn nh tt c u lm cng ngh vi nhau, phm vi th t cng rt rng.

Nh ti c ni, ti a bi trc nghim ny cho khong ngi. Trong s c khong 25 ngi c im di 20, tm ngi c im trn 90, bn ngi c im trn Mt im khin ti ngc nhin na l tt c cc nhm x hi c nghin cu, nhm no cng c ngi t im cao.

Tnh trung bnh, im s ca nhm sinh vin i hc thp hn so vi. Nhng ngay trong chnh nhm , vng trn x hi ca mt s ngi c quy m ln gp bn n nm ln vng trn x hi ca nhng ngi khc. Ni mt cch hnh nh th ri rc trn mi no ng ca cuc sng, c mt s ngi s hu c mt kh nng tht s phi thng trong kt giao bn b v to dng quan h. H chnh l Ngi Kt Ni. Ngi c s im cao nht trong iu tra ca ti l Roger Horchow mt doanh nhn thnh t n t Dallas. Horchow l ngi sng lp Horchow Collection mt cng ty cung cp hng ha theo n t hng qua th chuyn pht nhanh.

Ti c gii thiu vi Horchow qua c con gi ca ng vn l mt ngi bn ca ti. V ti ti gp Horchow ti nh ngh ca ng Manhattan mt cn h gin d nm trn i l s 5. Horchow l mt ngi thanh nh, im m, ni nng chm ri vi m ging nh ko di c trng ca min Texas. Nu ngi cnh Roger Horchow trn mt chuyn bay vt i Ty Dng, bn s nghe ng bt u tr chuyn ngay khi my bay bt u chuyn bnh trn ng bng. Khi my bay h cnh xung cng l lc bn t hi thi gian bay bin i ng no.

Lc ti a cho ng danh sch cc h c chn t danh b ca Manhattan, ng c lt qua, ming va lm nhm, tay va r r bt ch trn trang giy. Ti phn vn khng bit c nn cho ng thm thi gian l 10 pht na nh li hay khng v c th ng s nh thm c nhiu hn. L do g khin Horchow xut sc n vy? Khi gp ng ti lp tc b thuyt phc ngay rng quen bit nhiu ngi cng l mt dng k nng, l iu c th c sp t thc hin mt cch cng phu, n c th c hon thin, v rng chnh l nhng k nng lm trung tm cho thc t l ta bit tt c mi ngi.

Ti tip tc hi Horchow v vic tt c cc mi quan h ny h tr ng nh th no trong cng vic kinh doanh v ti cho rng hai vic ny c lin quan n nhau. Tuy nhin, cu hi dng nh khin ng bi ri. Khng phi v nhng mi quan h khng gip g ng.

Ch l bn thn ng khng coi nhng ngi xung quanh lin i n chin lc kinh doanh ca mnh. V Horchow khng h t ph v iu ny. Khi gp Horchow, ng c k ti nghe lm th no ng c quyn hi sinh nhc phm Girl Crazy ca Gershin thnh Crazy for you. Ton b cu chuyn ko di 20 pht.

Nh cm nhn ca ti, ng ang ch tm bc l phm gi trong tnh cch ca mnh. Nhng khi xt kha cnh l bc tranh m t nhng g ng suy ngh v nhng yu t khin mt ai tr thnh Ngi Kt Ni ti tin rng cu chuyn hon ton c tht: Ti c mt ngi bn tn l Mickey Schaenen sng New York. Ti bit anh yu thch Gershwin. Ti tng gp bn gi c ca George Gershwin tn l Emily Paley. C y cn l em gi ca Lenore v ca Ira Gershwin. Emily Paley sng Village v c y mi chng ta ti n ti.

V th l, ti gp Emily Paley. Hm , ti cn c chim ngng bc chn dung do Gershwin v Paley. B kt hn vi son gi Godowsky. Con trai ca Arthur Gershwin cng c mt hm. Tn anh ta l Mark Gershwin. Chng ti cha bao gi thy bng dng ng nh ht no c. Bc tranh v b y chong khn mu , cc cu nhn thy n ri, ng khng?.

Sau , chng ti cng ti Hollywood v gh vo nh b Gershwin. Ti ln ting: Hi ti cn Neiman Marcus, c mt ph n l Mildred Knopf vit mt cun sch dy nu n. Chng ca ngi ph n l Edwin Knopf, mt nh sn xut phim, l ngi a Audrey Hepburn ln nh cao s nghip.

Edwin li c mt ngi anh lm bn xut bn. Do chng ti cng gii thiu cun sch ti Dallas. Mildred tr thnh mt ngi bn tt ca ti. Chng ti rt yu qu b cho nn mi khi Los Angeles, ti u gi cho b. Ti vn lun duy tr quan h vi mi ngi nh th. V tht th v khi ha ra Edwin Knopf li l bn ch thn ca George Gershwin.

Hai v chng Knopf treo rt nhiu tranh ca Gershwin trong nh. Hin ti ng Knopf qua i nhng v ng b Mildred vn cn sng. B 98 tui. Do , khi ti thm Lee Gershwin, ti c nhc ti vic mnh va gh thm b Mildred Knopf. B Lee Gershwin ho hng ni: V b trao cho chng ti bn quyn ngay lp tc. Trong cuc ni chuyn ca chng ti, Horchow cn k thm nhiu iu na, ng m mng xu chui li nhng c mt sau cui ca mt i ngi. Vo dp sinh nht ln th 70 ca mnh, ng c cng tm li mt ngi bn t th cn hc tiu hc tn l Bobby Hunsicker, ngi ng khng gp li trong 60 nm qua.

Horchow tm kim ngi ng theo cch ngi chi tem su tp tem. Nhng chi tit ny rt c ngha vi Horchow. Khi chng ti ang ni chuyn, ng lin a ra mt quyn s nht k b ti mu. Nu ti c gp anh, ri yu qu anh v anh tnh c ni ra ngy sinh ca mnh, ti s ghi li vo cun s ny.

Nhn ny, th Hai l sinh nht ca Ginger Vroom v l k nim ci u tin ca nh Whittenburg. Ri th Su l sinh nht ca Alan Schwartz, th By l sinh nht ngi lm vn ca chng ti. Chng ta c vng trn b bn quanh mnh, nhng ngi chng ta ht lng, ht sc. Vi nhng ngi thn quen, chng ta gn b keo sn nh mu tht. L do chng ta khng bao gi gi thip mng sinh nht ti nhng ngi m ta khng dnh nhiu mi quan tm l v chng ta khng mun cm thy phi c ngha v n ti vi h, cng i xem mt b phim hay thm hi khi h au m. Horchow hon ton khng ging th. Nhng ngi m ng ghi trong nht k hay lu gi thng tin trong my tnh ch l nhng ngi bit nhng ngi ng c th ch tnh c gp duy nht mt ln trong nm hay vi nm mi gp c mt ln.

Khng nhng th, Horchow cn rt hi lng vi nhng rng buc mng manh ca mnh. Sau khi gp ng ri, ti cm thy mnh c cht nn lng. Ti mun bit v ng nhiu hn na nhng ti khng bit liu mnh c c hi no khng. T trong thm tm, ti khng ngh rng ng c cng cm gic vi mnh. Ti sao Horchow li qu khc bit vi i a s chng ta n vy?

Bn thn ng cng khng r ti sao. Tuy nhin l lun ca ng khng thc s gii thch c g. C l s ng hn khi coi xung ca Ngi Kt Ni n thun l mt xung mang c im tnh cch gp phn phn bit mt c nhn nht nh vi nhng c nhn khc.

Tm quan trng ca h cn nm v tr ca nhng mu ngi m h quen bit. Cn Gilbert. Gn y, mt nh khoa hc my tnh ti i hc Virginia tn l Brett Tjaden tnh ton v tm ra s Bacon trung bnh khi lin kt cc nam v n din vin trong khong mt phn t triu din vin tham gia cc b phim truyn hnh hay ch yu l cc phim in nh, con s ny vo khong 2, bc. Ni cch khc, tt c nhng ai tng ng phim u c th c lin h vi Bacon vi s buc trung bnh cha vt qu ba. Tjaden nhn thy khi lp danh sch tt c cc din vin da theo th t tnh kt ni, Bacon ch xp v tr Vi Martin Sheen th ngc li, nam din vin ny lin h vi nhng ngi khc trung bnh trong 2, bc.

Ch s ny gip Sheen vt qua Bacon bc. Elliot Gould cn c th c lin h thm ch cn nhanh hn vi ch s l 2, Cu tr li l Rod Steiger. Ti sao v tr ca Kevin Bacon li qu cch bit vi nhng nam din vin trn nh vy? Nguyn nhn chnh l do tui i ca Bacon tr hn nhiu so vi a s nhng din vin ny nn tt yu s phim anh ng cng s t hn.

Tuy nhin l do ny ch c th gii thch cho mt s im no ca khong cch bit. V c nhiu ngi cng tham gia ng rt nhiu b phim nhng vn khng c kt ni rng ri. V d nh John Wayne, trong 60 nm s nghip, din vin ny xut hin trong b phim y l mt con s ng n nhng c ng v tr vi s bc trung bnh l 2, Vn l ch: Th nhng, chng ta hy cng xem xt trng hp.

Steiger cng ginh c mt gii Oscar cho cho vai din trong b phim In the heart of night v gip nhng b phim in nh loi hai chuyn th sang video. S d Rod Steiger l din vin kt ni rng ri nht trong lch s l bi v ng n lc hot ng , di chuyn ngc xui gia rt nhiu cc lnh vc, cc nn tiu vn ha, cc v tr thch hp v cp khc nhau m nghip din a y n. H l nhng Rod Steiger ca cuc sng thng ngy. H l ngi m tt c chng ta u c th tip cn ch sau vi bc trung gian bi v, h chinh phc thnh cng nhng th gii, nhng tiu vn ha v nhng v tr thch hp khc nhau.

Trong trng hp ca ti t Steiger, hin nhin mc lin kt rng ri ca ng l nh ng rt a nng v c c cht may mn. Cn trong trng hp ca Ngi Kt Ni, kh nng xm nhp su rng vo rt nhiu lnh vc khc nhau l mt c im mang tnh bn cht trong tnh cch ca h.

Trc y, c ln ti c gp mt Ngi Kt Ni bc thy ti Chicago. Weisberg l y vin y ban cc vn vn ha ca chnh quyn thnh ph Chicago. Nhng y ch l cng vic gn y nht trong chui kinh nghim v cng vic phi thng ca b. V d nh vo u nhng nm , Weisberg gi vai tr qun l mt on kch Chicago. Nm , b quyt nh t chc mt festival k nim mt trm nm ngy sinh ca George Bernard Shaw v sau , bt u cho ra i mt t bo vinh danh Shaw.

T bo ny v sau tr thnh mt t bo hot ng ngm, ra hng tun vi tn gi The Paper. Ti th su hng tun, mi ngi t khp ni trong thnh ph tp trung li hp bin tp.

William Friedkin, o din ca hai v The French Connection v The Exorcist l ngi c mt thng xuyn , cng nh lut s Elmer Gertz mt trong nhng lut s ca hng lut Nathan Leopold v mt s bin tp vin ca tp ch Playboy hi. Bruce tng c thi. Bruce li khng c cha kha nn ca s lun m cho anh ta vo. Ngi nh c rt nhiu phng v cng ng thi c rt nhiu ngi nhng ti khng h bit n s c mt ca h. Ti khng bao gi chu c nhng chuyn ct nh ca Bruce. Ti cng khng tht s thch hnh ng ca anh na.

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Ti khng th no a c nhng t ng m Bruce s dng. Sau khi gc li The Paper, Lois nhn mt cng vic l i din quan h cng chng cho mt trung tm phc hi chn thng. V trong thi gian lm vic ti BPI b bt u b m nh bi thc trng nt v b sao nhng ca cc cng vin trong thnh ph Chicago. Do , b tp hp nhng ngi yu thin nhin, nhng nh s hc, nhng nh hot ng x hi thnh ph v c cc b, cc ch ni tr li vi nhau v lp nn mt nhm vn ng hnh lang l Nhng ngi bn ca cng vin. Tip n, b li c bo ng v tuyn ng st a phng chy dc b Nam ca h Michigan t khc quanh pha Nam ti Chicago ang sp b d b.

V th l, b li tip tc tp hp thnh nhm nhng ngi hoi nim tuyn ng, nhng nh mi trng v nhng cng dn thnh ph lp ra nhm Phn i k hoch b Nam v bo v c tuyn ng st. Tip tc b li tr thnh gim c iu hnh ca Hi ng lut s thnh ph Chicago, mt t chc lut tin b. Sau , b tham gia vo chin dch i biu quc hi a phng. Trc khi ri b chnh trng, b cn m trch v tr t chc cc s kin c bit cho v th trng da en u tin ca Chicago l Harold Washington. Ri b cng vic trong chnh ph, b m mt gian hng nh ti ch tri. Cui cng, b li ra lm vic cho th trng Richard Daley cho n tn by gi vi t cch l y vin v cc vn vn ha ca Chicago.

Nu chng ta lc qua trang lch s ny v tnh ton, con s nhng lnh vc m Lois Weisberg tham gia ln ti 8, bao gm: Khi ti khn khon yu cu b t lit k mt danh sch, b thm vo hai tiu vn ha na l kin trc s, v nhng ngi kinh doanh hiu khch nhng ngi b ang lm vic cng trong cng vic hin ti. Tuy nhin, Weisberg ang qu khim tn, v nu mt khi xem xt t m hn cuc sng ca b, ta chc chn c th chia nh nhng tiu vn ha b tham gia thnh 15 hay thm ch Vy nn c im chnh nhng Ngi Kt Ni l khi dn thn mnh vo nhiu nhng th gii khc nhau n vy, h li to ra hiu ng lin kt nhng th gii li vi nhau.

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Mt ln, vo gia nhng nm , Weisberg vi mt thch bt cht bt chuyn tu ti New York tham d vo Hi ngh cc tiu thuyt gia khoa hc vin tng. Ti y, b gp mt cy vit tr tn l Arthur C.

Clarke rt n tng vi Weisberg, do vy, sau , khi n Chicago, anh ta gi cho b. Cu y ang gi t bt in thoi cng cng. Cu y hi ti xem nn gp ai ti Chicago ny. Ti lin bo Clarke hy qua nh ti. Vi m iu trm, hi bn v khn khn do nicotine t thuc l b dng trong mi nm qua, b dng li na chng cu ni, t thng cho mnh mt hi ngn. Ngay c khi khng ht thuc, b cng ngng li c nh th ang luyn tp cho nhng lc ht thuc. Ti gi cho Bob Hughes.

Bob Hughes l mt trong nhng ngi tham gia vit bi cho ti ngy trc. B dng li ri tip: Ti ni: Anh c bit Chicago ny c ai hng th tip chuyn vi Arthur Clarke khng? Anh ta p: V c anh chng Robert, Robert Robert Heinlein na. Sau y, tt c bn h u ti ngi trong phng lm vic ca ti. Ni ti y b li ngng li trong chc lt. LoisTi khng th nh c nhng t h dng.

Trc tin, b hng n mi ngi, hng n mt s ngi bn ngoi cuc sng, bn ngoi th gii ca ring mnh. C lc, b tham gia qun l on kch. Cn Arthur Clarke l mt nh vn vit truyn khoa hc vin tng. V mc quan trng tng ng, Clarke s hng ng theo b.

Rt nhiu ngi trong chng ta cng hng n nhng ngi khc bit, ti nhng ngi ni ting hn hay thnh cng hn ta nhng nhng c ch khng phi lun lun c hng ng, p li. Do vy mi c chuyn khi Arthur Clarke n Chicago v mong mun c kt ni v lm quen vi nhng ngi khc, Weisberg dn ti Issac Asimov.

B c bin minh rng tht may mn khi Issac Asimov ang Chicago. Tuy nhin, nu khng phi l Asimov th chc chn cng s l mt ngi khc ri. Mt trong nhng n tng m mi ngi cn nh mi v bui hp mt vn ngh s ca Weisberg vo mt ti th su trong nm l tt c h u d dng ha nhp. Vn c ni ti khng phi l nu khng c bui hp mt th nhng ngi da en khng ha nhp c vi ngi da trng min Bc nc M ny.

Trc , d rt him hoi, nhng iu ny vn xy ra. Vn y l ngi da en ha nhp vi c vi ngi da trng Chicago trong nhng nm khng phi do ngu nhin; n xy ra c l do mt nhm ngi nht nh tc ng n. B y khng bao gi ln mt, Wendy Willrich tng lm vic cho Weisberg ni: C ln, ti i cng Weisberg ti mt studio nh chuyn nghip.

Chnh ngi ch studio ng li mi v b nhn li. Anh ta ch l mt ngi th chp nh ci. B quyt nh kim chng iu ny. Ti ngh trong u: Cn phi i bng my bay na. Nhng Weisberg li cho rng ngi ch studio y ht sc th v. Ai bit c iu? Nhng im chnh yu l Lois nhn nhn anh chng th v, bi v, theo quan im ca b, b thy ai cng th v. Mt ngi bn ca b c ni vi ti Weisberg th lun ni , ti gp c mt ngi v cng tuyt vi.

Bn cng s thch c y ngay y. Weisberg nhit tnh vi ngi ny cng ht nh vi ngi u tin b gp, v bn nhn thy c g B y lun lun ng. Cn y l nhng g Helen Doria mt ngi bn khc ca Weisberg ni: Lois nhn thy trong bn nhng iu m chnh bn cng khng thy bn thn mnh, cng l cch ni khc v cng mt vn: Khi Weisberg quan st th gii xung quanh hay khi Horchow ngi cnh bn trn my bay, h khng nhn nhn cng mt th gii nh chng ta nhn nhn.

H nhn vo tim nng ca mi ngi, trong khi hu ht chng ta li bn rn chn la ai l ngi m mnh c hng th bt chuyn v chi b nhng ngi mnh thy khng thun mt, nhng ngi ra v thng tu mi chuyn, hay nhng ngi m mnh khng gp sut 65 nm tri. Nhng Lois va Horchow li yu qu tt c nhng ngi nh th. Trong nghin. Nhng ng ni hn c l Granovetter pht hin phn ln nhng mi quan h ny u l lin h yu t. Tht ra mi ngi khng tm c vic lm thng qua bn b m da vo cc mi quan h quen bit ca mnh.

Vy ti sao li nh th? Granovetter lp lun rng nguyn nhn l v khi bt tay vo tm kim cng vic mi hay tng t nh vy, khi tm kim nhng thng tin mi hay nhng tng mi th nhng lin h yu t li lun quan trng hn nhng lin h vng chc. Play through countless levels of TriPeaks Solitaire!

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