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Troponin includes three polypeptides: TnT, which binds to tropomyosin; TnC, which binds to calcium ions; and Tnl, which inhibits actin—myosin interaction. Myosin has two heavy chains with globular head regions. The heads contain actin-binding sites and have ATPase activity. The transverse tubular system surrounds each myofibril and facilitates excitation-contraction coupling.
Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle has an arrangement of sarcomeres similar to that in skeletal muscles, but the fibers are coupled through gap junctions. Smooth muscle is found in the walls of blood vessels and hollow viscera.
Gap junctions couple them electrically. Electrical or chemical signaling via hormones can i trigger smooth muscles. Table l—3—2 summarizes the differences between the three types of muscles. The thymus contains epithelial reticular cells and Hassall corpuscles in the medulla and lacks germinal centers.
The thymus protects developing T cells by the blood—thymus barrier that consists of a capillary wall. It is populated by most of the B lymphocytes. High Endothelial Venules High endothelial Venules form the site of repopulation of lymph nodes and are found in the paracortical zone.
Lymph Node SPLEEN The spleen has an extensive blood supply consisting of trabecular arteries, central arteries, peni- cillar arteries, sinusoids, red pulp veins, and trabecular veins. It is surrounded by a capsule, has trabeculae, and is divided into red and white pulp Figure I White Pulp White pulp consists of lymphoid tissue that ensheaths the central arteries periarterial sheath along with the associated nodules and germinal centers.
The periarterial sheath is populated mainly by T lymphocytes. The peripheral white pulp and germinal centers are populated mainly by B lymphocytes. Red Pulp Red pulp consists of splenic cords of Billroth and venous sinusoids. Defective red blood cells resulting from aging or disease as in sickle cell anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, or thalassemia syndromes are delayed in their passage from Billroth cords into the venous sinusoids and phagocytosed by macrophages lining the cords.
Lymphoid Organs Trabecular artery t? Peripheral Mg. Epithelial reticular cells and Hassall's corpuscles are located within the medulla.
The cortex lacks germinal centers. The thymus protects developing T cells by the blood—thymus barrier. The lymph node has three layers: The outer cortical layer contains most of the nodules and germinal centers.
Most of the B lymphocytes reside here, whereas T lymphocytes reside in the paracortical layer. High endothelial Venules are the site of repopulation of lymph E nodes and are located within the paracortical zones. The spleen is very vascular and has red and white pulp.
White pulp is composed of lymphoid tissue. Red pulp consists of splenic cords and venous sinusoids. Its function l is to delay passage ol defective red blood cells to enable their elimination through phagocytosis by l macrophages. It is considered to be the largest organ in the body. The integument functions to protect the body from injury, desiccation, and infection.
It also participates in sensory recep- tion, excretion, thermoregulation, and maintenance of water balance. It is a stratified squa- mous epithelial layer of ectodermal origin.
Layers The layers of the epidermis are: Viewed at the electron microscopic level, these cells also contain numerous membrane-coating granules. Cell Types The epidermis contains several cell types: They are found in the dermis and are also scattered among the keratinocytes in the basal layers of the epidermis. These cells produce the pigment melanin in the form of melanosomes that are trans- ferred to keratinocytes.
Clinical Correlate Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disorder caused by disruption of desmosomes linking keratinocytes. Psoriasis results from an increase in the number of proliferating cells in stratum basale plus stratum spinosum. In addition, there is an increase in the rate of cell turnover. This results in greater epidermal thickness and continuous turnover of the epidermis. Anatomy Clinical Correlate Albinism occurs when melanocytes are unable to synthesize melanin either by absence of lyrosinase activity or inability of cells to take up tyrosine.
Vitiligo is a disorder in which melanocytes are destroyed. It is thought to occur secondary to autoimmune dysfunction, leading to depigmentation. Clinical Correlate Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune blistering disorder of the dermis—epidermis junction. Dermis—Epiderma Junction The dermis-epidermal junction is characterized by numerous papillary interdigitations of the dermal connective tissue and epidermal epithelium, especially in thick skin.
This increases the surface area of attachment and brings blood vessels in closer proximity to the epidermal cells. Skin The hypodermis fastens the skin to underlying muscles and other structures. Two types are compeued in Table Table II. They usually discharge their secretions onto the hair shaft within hair follicles.
They are found in the dermis throughout the skin, except on the palms and soles. They develop from epidermal irivaginations called hair follicles.
Bundles of smooth muscle cells, called ar1'ec— tor pili muscles, are attached to the hair follicle at one end and to the papillary dermis at the other.
The follicles and associated sebaceous glands are known as pilosebaceous units. They contain hard keratin that forms in a manner similar to the formation of hair. Cells continually proliferate and kera- tinize from the stratum basale of the nail matrix.
It is the largest organ in the body. The epidermis is devoid of blood vessels and contains a stratified squamous epithelium derived primarily from ectoderm.
It is composed of six layers in thick skin: All six layers contain various amounts of keratin. The epidermis contains four cell types: The dermis is a connective tissue layer mainly of mesodermal origin. Other layers are the dermis-epidermal junction and hypodermis. The latter contain adipocytes. Sweat glands may be eccrine or apocrine. These are compared in Table II. Sebaceous glands are branched holocrine acinar glands that discharge their secretions onto hair shafts within hair follicles.
They are absent in the palms and soles.
Hair is comprised of keratinized epidermal cells. Hair follicles and the associated sebaceous glands are known as pilosebaceous units. Nails are modified stratum corneum of the epidermis and contain hard keratin. Cells continually proliferate and keratinize from the stratum basale of the nail matrix. Mucus is carried toward the pharynx by ciliary motion. The lateral walls contain conchae, which increase the surface area and promote warming of the inspired air.
This region is richly vascularized and innervated. The basal cells are stem cells that continuously turn over to replace the olfactory receptor cells. This is the only example in the adult human where neurons are replaced. They contain a thin respiratory epithelium over a lamina pro- pria containing numerous goblet cells, which produce mucus that drains into the nasal passages.
The cilia beat toward the oropharynx, which is composed of a stratified, squamous, nonkeratinized epithelium. Respiratory System Pharyngeal Tonsil Located on the posterior wall of the nasopharynx, subjacent to the epithelium, is the pharyn- geal tonsil, an aggregate of nodular and diffuse lymphatic tissue. The major histologic changes occurring in the passage from the trachea to the bronchioles are summarized in Table I Alveolar sacs are spaces formed by two or more conjoined alveoli.
They are lined by the simple squamous alveolar epithelium. There are approximately million alveoli per lung, each one to mm in diam- eter Figure l— The alveolar epithelium contains two cell types. Anatomy Type I Cells Type 1 cells cover almost all of the alveolar luminal surface and provide a thin surface for gas exchange. Type I cells constitute one component of the blood—air interface.
Type II Cells Type 11 cells are cuboidal—like cells that sit on the basal lamina of the epithelium and contain membrane-bound granules of phospholipid and protein lamellar bodies. The contents of these lamellar bodies are secreted onto the alveolar surface to provide a coating of surfactant that reduces alveolar surface tension.
Alveolus and Blood-Air Barrier urulr 52 medical I l Alveolar macrophages continuously remove particles and other irritants in the alveoli by phago- cytosis. They derive from monocytes and form part of the mononuclear phagocyte system.
Chapter Summary The nasal cavities have two major areas: The respiratory area is lined by pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium. Goblet cells are present as well.
The olfactory area is in the posterosuperior area and contains bipolar neurons. Olfactory neurons are constantly replenished. Paranasal sinuses are located in the frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoidal bones.
They communicate with the nasal cavities. The nasopharynx is composed of stratified, squamous nonkeratinized epithelium. The pharyngeal tonsil is an aggregate of nodular and diffuse lymphatic tissue within the posterior wall of the nasopharynx.
Histologic features of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles are described in Table Il. Respiratory bronchioles contain alveoli and branch to form alveolar ducts, which terminate in alveolar sacs and are lined by squamous alveolar epithelium. Alveoli are terminal, thin-walled sacs of the respiratory tree responsible for gaseous exchange. They contain two kinds of cells. Type I cells provide a thin surface for gaseous exchange, whereas Type II cells produce surfactant.
Alveolar macrophages dust cells are located on the surface of alveoli and within the interalveolar connective tissue. They are derived from monocytes. Waaical 53 Table Digestive T1'act—Regiona.
Form protective layer against acid. Tight junctions between these cells probably contributes to the acid barrier of the epithelium. Same as above. High concentration of gastrin. Secrete acid glycoproteins that protect mucosal lining. Contains granules that contain lysozyme. High concentration of cells that secrete cholecystokinin and secretin.
Endocytose and transport antigen from the lumen to lymphoid cells. Duodenum nmlr medical 57 Comparison of the Major Salivary Glands Acinar Cell Type I-listologic Appearance Serous high amylase Glossopharyngeal IX activity Subrnanclibular Serous and mucous; Facial VII mainly serous Sublingual Mucous and serous; mainly mucous Pancreas The exocrine portion of the pancreas consists of parenchymal cells arranged in the form of acini and a system of branching ducts that drain into the lumen of the small intestine.
Pancreatic enzymes cleave proteins e. Duct cells Duct cells secrete water, electrolytes, and bicarbonate HCO; , which dilute enzyme secretions and neutralize acidic chyrne.
Liver The liver is the largest gland of the body. It has multiple and complex functions, including exocrine secretion via bile ducts into the duodenal lumen and maintenance of optimal con- centrations of various components of blood, which it receives via the portal vein from the diges- tive tract and spleen. Each cylinder is composed of plates of cells arranged radially around a central vein.
Between the plates are radial blood sinusoids. Liver regeneration can occur rapidly under some circumstances. Sinusoids The liver contains sinusoids Figure that are lined with fenestrated endothelial cells and scattered phagocytic Kupffer cells, which are part of the mononuclear phagocyte system.
Biliary system The liver contains a biliary system consisting of: These ducts empty into Hering canals, which are small ducts composed of cuboidal cells. Gallbladder The gallbladder is lined by a surface epithelium composed of simple, tall, columnar cells. They bear irregular microvilli with a glycoprotein surface coat.
From there, the water moves into blood vessels, and the bile is concentrated. Contraction of the muscle layer muscularis externa of the gallbladder is induced by the hor- mone cholecystokinin, which is produced in the mucosa of the small intestine. Organization of a Liver Lobule Chapter Summary The gastrointestinal system includes the digestive tract and its associated glands.
The associated glands are salivary, pancreas, liver, and the gall bladder. The salivary glands are compared in Table l— The pancreas has an exocrine portion and an endocrine portion. The exocrine portion is composed of acini and duct cells. Acini secrete enzymes that cleave proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids. Duct cells secrete water, electrolytes, and bicarbonate. The liver is the largest gland in the body.
The parenchyma is made up of hepatocytes arranged in cords within lobules. Hepatocytes produce proteins, secrete bile, store lipids and carbohydrates, and convert lipids and amino acids into glucose. They detoxify drugs by oxidation, methylation, or conjugation, and they are capable of regeneration.
Liver Sinusoids, found between hepatic cords, are lined with endothelial cells and scattered Kupffer cells, which phagocytose red blood cells.
The biliary system is composed of bile caliculi, hepatic ducts, the cystic duct, and the common bile i duct. The gall bladder is lined by simple tall columnar cells and has a glycoprotein surface coat.
It concentrates bile by removing water through active transport of sodium and chloride ions especially the former. Gall bladder contraction is mediated via cholecystokinin, a hormone produced by enteroendocrine cells in the mucosa of the small intestine.
Hilum The hilum is located medially and serves as the point of entrance and exit for the renal artery, renal vein, and ureter. These, in turn, divide into eight minor calyces. Cortex The cortex forms the outer zone of the kidney as well as several renal columns, which penetrate the entire depth of the kidney. Medulla The medulla appears as a series of medullary pyramids.
The apex of each pyramid directs the urinary stream into a minor calyx. Nephron The nephron consists of a renal corpuscle, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and dis- tal convoluted tubule Figure L Nephron Diagram Renal corpuscle The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries, or glomerulus, surrounded by a double- walled epithelial capsule called Bowman capsule Figure I The endothelium of the glomerulus is thin and fenestrated.
Bowman Capsule The Bowman capsule consists of an inner visceral layer and an outer parietal layer Figure The space between these layers, the urinary space, is continuous with the renal tubule.
The parietal layer is composed of a simple squamous epithelium that is continuous with the proximal convoluted tubule epithelial lining. Visceral layer Podocytes Figure I-B All riylnis resolved.
Basal Lamina Endothelial Cell Capyr1gh! Electron Mlcrograph Demonstrating Relationship Between Basal Lamina, Podocyte, and Endothelial cell Proximal convoluted tubule The proximal convoluted tubule is the longest and most convoluted segment of the nephron. Its cells possess an apical brush border that provides a much greater surface area for reabsorp- tion and secretion. Loop of Henle The loop of Henle is a hairpin loop of the nephron that extends into the medulla and consists of thick and thin segments.
Collecting Tubules Collecting tubules consist of arched and straight segments made up of cells that range from cuboidal to columnar. The endothelium of the venae rectae is fenestrated and plays an important role in maintaining the osmotic gradient required for concentrating urine in the kidney tubules.
Renal Corpuscle and Juxtoglomerular Apparatus They secrete an enzyme called renin, which enters the bloodstream and converts the circulating polypeptide mgiotensinogen into angiotensin I.
Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor that stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone increases sodium and water reabsorption in the distal portion of the nephron. Polkissen Cells Polkissen cells are located between the afferent and efferent arterioles at the vascular pole of the glomerulus, adjacent to the macula densa. Their function is unknown. Macula Densa Cells of the distal tubule near the afferent arteriole are taller and more slender than elsewhere 11 the distal tubule.
They constitute the macula densa. Chapter Summary The kidney has three major regions: The hilum is the point of entrance and exit for the renal vessels and ureter. The upper expanded portion of the ureter is called the renal pelvis, and divides into two or three major calyces and several minor calyces. The cortex has several renal columns that penetrate the entire depth of the kidney.
Laboratory Objectives. Identify all indicated structures or portions of structures on the diagrammatic view of the male reproductive system below. During exercise the flow through these arteries is up to five times normal flow.
Arteries and arterioles have thicker walls than veins and venules because they are closer to the heart and receive blood that is surging at a far greater pressure Figure 2. Applied anatomy and physiology. The major vessel bringing blood to the right arm and right side of the head and neck is the: -brachiocephalic trunk. The Major Systemic Veins Review the major systemic veins of the body including the veins of the neck, arm, forearm, abdomen, pelvis, thigh, and leg in this interactive tutorial.
Blood flow requires appropriate model or diagram. Extracting blood 16 Jun Drag and drop the text labels onto the boxes next to the diagram. Complete with colorful illustrations to label and study, this worksheet provides an This could be a great study tool for a test about blood vessels. Download Exercise Aorta. Be sure to know the cardiac anatomy from your lab exercise.
The vessels that carry blood away from the heart are called arteries, and their very small branches are arterioles. Describe the organization of the cardiovascular. We will write a custom Name all structures vessels, heart chambers, and others passed through We will write a custom essay sample on Anatomy of Blood Cells Exercise 32 specifically for you.
Anatomy of Blood Vessels. Right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle, aorta, inferior. Cross-sectional views of an artery and of a vein are shown here. Blood is carried through three different types of blood vessels in the body:. Except for capillaries, which have only a tunica interna, the walls of blood vessels are composed of three layers, or tunics: an innermost tunica interna, surrounded by a tunica media, with a tunica externa on the outside of the vessel.
Anatomy TV. The lymphatic system in relation to the cardiovascular system Lymphatic Circulation Lymph travels through a network of small and large channels that are in some ways similar to the blood vessels. Websites Review Questions. IP Exercise Sheets, created by Dr. The circulatory system includes two loops throughout the body know as the pulmonary In this exercise, read about the structures of the heart and how blood flows through the systemic and pulmonary circuit.
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A: Anatomical terminology. Deserbe and compare the two main 2. High blood cholesterol is a risk factor for coronary artery disease.
Location Tunic Name Composed of Innermost intima endothelium middle media smooth muscle and elastin Outer externa collagen 2. The heart pumps blood throughout the body in blood vessels. Open the body cavities on the cat. Blood Vessel Lab Exercises. Anatomy of the Blood Vessels Introduction. Apr 13, Posterior tibial artery: This branch of the popliteal artery supplies oxygenated blood to the leg and sole of the foot. In this article we will consider the structure and anatomical relationships of the aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, and the superior and inferior vena cavae.
Play this quiz called Blood Vessel Anatomy and show off your skills. Dissect and identify the listed blood vessels on the cat. I only ask that if youThe blood vessels leading to the heart may be found. Describe the differences in blood velocity in large vs small blood vessels. Arterial walls are high pressure. These are the arteries you use to check your pulse in your neck.
Take the following quiz on blood vessels to see what you know about them! Cardiovascular System. What answers did you find? As the name im-plies, blood contained in the circulatory system is pumped by the heart around a closed circle or circuit of vessels as it passes again and again through the various circulations of the body on p. Vena cava. This diagram shows the network of blood vessels in the lungs.
Clear the lab bench except for one set of directions and the review sheet for the first lab exam. Different types of blood vessels vary slightly in their structures, but they share the same general features. A cut and stick worksheet with diagram of inside of heart and labels of appropriate structures. Identify all of the anatomical structures listed in this exercise. Key: a. The blood vessels under the most pressure Blood vessels that provide the greatest resistance to blood flow The ability to recognize true statements about veins Skills Practiced.
Blood vessels are hollow tubes that carry blood all over the human body. Must redeem within 90 days. See full terms and conditions and this month's choices. Tell us what you like, so we can send you books you'll love.
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