usaascvb.infope: application/pdf usaascvb.info: usaascvb.infods: Letters From A Father To His Daughter usaascvb.infods. Nehru wrote some 30 letters to his ten year daughter, Indira who was studying in a Mussoorie school in in which he taught her the natural history and the story of civilization. The principal aim of writing these letters was to teach Indira a wide range of issues. Time for reading Letters From A Father To His Daughter By Jawaharlal Nehru, as best seller book in this wolrd kindle, ppt, and pdf. capital letters and full stops.
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Letters from a father to his daughter by Jawaharlal Nehru; 14 editions; First published in ; Subjects: History, Ancient, Juvenile literature. Letters From a Father to His Daughter - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File . txt) or read online. misc. Name: Letters From A Father To His Daughter By Jawaharlal Nehru Rating: Likes: Types: ebook | djvu | pdf | mp3. Score: /10 - ( votes).
Men ate fruits and nuts and the animals they killed. They did not know cooking but perhaps they just heated the meat on the big fires they had. One thing is very curious. These savage men knew how to draw. They simply had their stone needles and pointed instruments.
With these they scratched or drew animals on the walls of caves. You know that it is easier to draw profiles, and children usually draw in this way. As the caves must have been dark it is probable that they used some kind of simple lamp. These men that we have described are called Palaeolithic men, or the men of the old Stone Age. That period is called the Stone Age because men made all their tools with stone. They did not know how to use the metals.
Today most of your things are made of metals, specially iron. But iron or bronze was not known then, and so stone, which is much more difficult to work with, was used. Before the Stone Age came to an end, the climate of the world changed greatly and became much warmer.
The glaciers had gone far back to the Arctic Ocean, and in Central Asia and Europe great forests arose. Among these forests we find a new race of men living. These people were cleverer in many ways than the Palaeolithic men whom we have just described.
But they still made their tools out of stone. These men also belonged to the Stone Age but it was the later Stone Age. They are called Neolithic men or men of the new Stone Age. We find when examining these Neolithic men that great progress has been made. The intelligence of man is making him go ahead fast compared to the other animals. These Neolithic men made the very great discovery of cultivation. They started tilling fields and growing their food there. This was a great thing for them.
They could now get their food more easily instead of having to hunt animals all the time.
They got more leisure, more time to rest and think. And the more leisure they had, the more progress they made in discovering new things and methods. They started making earthen pots, and with the help of these they began to cook their food. The stone tools were much better and were beautifully polished. They also knew how to tame animals like the cow, the dog, the sheep and the goat. They also knew how to weave. They used to live in houses or huts. You will wonder how we know so much about these people.
They wrote no books of course. But I have already told you that the book where we read the story of these men is the great book of nature. It is not easy to read it. It requires great patience. Many people have spent their lives in trying to read this book and they have collected large numbers of fossils and other remains of old times.
These fossils are collected together in the great museums, and we can see there the fine polished axes and the pots and stone arrows and needles and many other things which were made by the Neolithic man. You have seen many of these things yourself but perhaps you have forgotten them. If you see them again you will be able to understand them better.
There was, I remember, a very good model of a lake-dwelling in the Geneva museum. It is called the nucleus and it is a kind of heart. These animals, or whatever they are, have a curious way of dividing and becoming two. They start getting thinner at one place and go on 16 doing so till they break off into two jelly-like things and both of these are just like the original one.
This division takes place after this fashion: You will see that the nucleus or heart also divides and each part gets a bit of it. In this way these animals go on dividing and increasing. Something of this kind must have been the first living thing on this earth of ours. What a simple and humble representative of life it was! There was nothing better or higher in the whole earth then.
The real animals had not come and man was not to come for millions of years. These jelly-like things were followed by sea weeds and shell-fish and crabs and worms. Then came fishes. We know a lot about these as they had hard bony parts or shells and they left these for us to find, so long after them, and to study them.
The shells were left in the mud on the sea-floor. They were covered up by fresh mud and sand and were so preserved carefully. The mud became hard because of the weight and pressure of the sand and mud on top of it.
It became so hard that it became a rock. In this way rocks were formed at the bottom of the sea. An earthquake or something else brought out the rock from under the sea and it became dry land. Then the dry rock was washed away by the rivers and by rain, and the shells which had been hidden in it for ages and ages came out. This is how we come across these shells or fossils and after studying them find out what our earth was like in the old days before man came.
We shall consider in the next letter how these simple animals developed and became what they are today. They could only live in the water and if they came out and dried up they must have died as the jelly-fish dies today if it gets stranded on the beach and dries up.
But in those days there must have been plenty of water and marshy land, much more so than we have today.
Now those jelly-fishes and other sea animals which had slightly tougher skins could stay a little longer on dry land than the others as they did not 17 dry up so soon. So gradually the soft jelly-fishes and everything else like them became fewer and fewer as they could not face dry land easily, and those with harder coverings became more and more.
This is a very interesting thing to notice. It means that animals slowly fit themselves or adapt themselves to their surroundings.
You have seen in the South Kensington Museum in London how birds and animals in winter and in cold countries where there is a lot of ice become white like snow; in tropical countries where there is a lot of green vegetation and trees they became green or some other bright colour.
That is, they adapt themselves to their surroundings. They change their colour to protect themselves from their enemies as they cannot easily be seen if they are the same colour as their surroundings. They grow fur in cold countries to keep warm in the cold. So also the tiger is yellow and striped.
It is like sunlight coming through the trees in the jungle. It is difficult to see the tiger in the thick jungle. This very interesting fact that animals try to fit in with their surroundings is a very important thing. Of course animals do not themselves try to change. But those which change and therefore fit in with their surroundings have a better chance of living. So they increase in numbers and the others do not. This explains so many things.
It explains the simple animals slowly developing into higher kinds of animals and maybe in millions of years developing into man. We cannot see the changes going on around us as they are slow and our lives are short. But nature goes on working and changing and making more perfect. It never stops or takes rest. Now you remember that the world was getting cooler and was slowly drying up.
As it became cooler the climate changed and many other things changed. As the earth changed so also slowly the animals changed and newer types of animals appeared. At first we have only simple sea animals, then complicated sea animals. Later as dry land increased there came animals which lived both in water and on land, something like the crocodiles today or the frogs.
These were followed by animals which lived entirely on land, and then there came birds which could fly in the air. I have mentioned the frog. This is an interesting study as in its own life in a way it shows us how animals gradually changed from water animals to land animals. A frog at first is a fish but later it becomes like a land animal and breathes with its lungs as all land animals do. There were great forests in those early days when life started on land.
The land must have been all swampy with thick jungles on it. These forests later on got covered up and with the pressure of a great deal of rock and earth they slowly changed to coal. You know that we get our coal from mines deep down in the earth. The coal mines are really old forests of those far-off days.
Some of these were a hundred feet long. Imagine a snake or a lizard one hundred feet long! Do you remember seeing the fossils of these brutes in the museum in London? Skeleton of a Stegosaurus extinct Later came animals which are more like the animals we see today.
These are called mammals because they suckle their young. These also were at first much bigger than they are today.
The mammal which most resembles man is the monkey or rather the ape. People think therefore that man is descended from the ape. This means that as each animal gradually adapted himself to his surroundings and became better and better, so also man at first was only a better ape. Of course he went on improving, or nature went on improving him, and now man thinks no end of himself.
He imagines himself so utterly different from the animals. But it is good to remember that we are cousins of the ape and the monkey, and even now many of us, I am afraid, behave like the monkeys do! We also noticed one very interesting and important rule in this evolution of lifeanimals are always trying to adapt themselves to their surroundings. In trying to do this they have developed many new qualities and have become higher and more complicated animals.
We can see this change or progress in many ways. For instance, first of all there were animals without bones, but as these could not survive for long they developed bones.
The first bone they developed was the backbone. So we have a division of animalsthe boneless ones and those with bones. Man and the animals you see about you have of course bones. Then again you find the simple animals like fishes laying eggs and leaving them. They lay thousands of eggs at a time but do not look after them. The mother does not care for her children at all.
She simply leaves the eggs and never comes back to them. As there is no one to look after them most of these eggs die and only a few of them develop into fishes. Is this not terrible waste? As we go up and examine the higher animals we find that their eggs or children are fewer but they look after them better. The hen also lays eggs but she sits upon them and so hatches them, and when the little chicks come out she feeds them for some time. When they grow up the mother does not care much for them.
There comes a great change in the higher animalsthe mammals about whom I said something in my last letter. These animals do not lay eggs but the mother keeps the egg inside her and gives birth to the fully developed baby animal, like dogs or cats or rabbits. And afterwards the mother suckles, or gives milk, to her young. The mother thus looks after her babies a great deal. Even here, however, you find that there is great deal of waste. The mother rabbit gives birth to a large number of baby rabbits every few months and many of these die.
But a higher animal like the elephant only gives birth to one baby elephant and looks after the baby well. So you will see that as animals develop they do not lay eggs but bear developed young ones like themselves, only smaller, and the higher animals usually give birth to one baby at a time.
You will also notice that the higher 22 animals have some affection for their young ones. Man is the highest animal and so you find that the mother and the father love and take care of their children a great deal. In this way man must have first developed from the lower animals. Probably the first men were hardly men like we know them today. They must have been half apes, half men, living rather like monkeys. Do you remember going with us to see a professor in Heidelberg in Germany?
He showed us a little museum full of fossils and especially an old skull which he kept carefully locked up in a safe. The skull was supposed to belong to one of these earliest men. We now call him the Heidelberg man, simply because the skull was found buried near Heidelberg. Of course there was no Heidelberg or any other city in those days. In those early days when the first men wandered about it used to be very cold. It is called the Ice Age because there was so much ice. Glaciers such as now exist near the North Pole, came right down to England and Germany.
The men must have found it very difficult to live and they must have had a hard time. They would only live where there were no glaciers. We are told by scientists that at that time the Mediterranean was not a sea at all but one or two lakes. There was no Red Sea either. It was all land. Probably the greater part of India was an island and the sea existed in the Punjab and part of our provinces.
You would then have to go to Mussoorie partly by a steamer! Man, when he first came, must have been surrounded by many huge animals, and he must have lived in fear of them. Today man is master of the world and he makes the animals do what he likes. Some he tames like the horse, the cow, the elephant, the dog, the cat and so many others.
Some he eats; and some, like the lion and the tiger, he shoots for pleasure. But in those days he was not the master but a poor hunted creature himself, trying to keep away from the great beasts.
Gradually, however, man raised himself and became more and more powerful till he became stronger than any animal. How did he do this? Not by physical strength for the elephant is much stronger than he is.
It was by intelligence and brain power. We can trace this growth of intelligence from the earliest days of man to the present day. Indeed it is intelligence that separates man from the other animals. There is practically no difference between a man without any intelligence and an animal.
The first great discovery that man probably made was that of fire. We light a fire now by a match. But of course matches are quite recent things. In olden times fires were made by rubbing two flints against each other till 23 a spark came, and this spark set fire to a piece of dry straw or some other dry thing.
Fires sometimes occur by themselves in the forests perhaps by the rubbing together of flints or something else. The animals were not clever enough to learn anything from this. But man was cleverer.
He saw the use of fire. It kept him warm in the winter and frightened away his enemies, the big animals. So whenever a fire started the men and women must have tried to keep it up by throwing dry leaves into it.
They did not want it to go out. Slowly they must have found out that they themselves could produce a spark and a fire by rubbing flints together. This was a great discovery for them and it gave them some power over the other animals. Man was then well on his way to the lordship of the world. This intelligence made him cleverer and stronger than enormous animals who would otherwise have destroyed him. As man's intelligence grew so also grew his power.
To begin with, man had no special weapons to fight his enemies. He could only throw stones at them. Then he began to make out of stone axes, spears and many other things, including fine stone needles. We saw many of these stone weapons in the South Kensington Museum and also in the museum in Geneva. The Ice Age about which I said something in my last letter slowly ended and the glaciers disappeared from Central Europe and Asia. As it became warmer men spread out.
In those days there were no houses or other buildings. People lived in caves. There was no cultivation, that is working in the fields. Men ate fruits and nuts and the animals they killed. They had no bread or rice because they did not grow anything in the fields.
They did not know cooking but perhaps they just heated the meat on the big fires they had. They had no cooking vessels or pots and pans. These savage men knew how to draw. Of course they had no paper or pens or pencils or brushes.
They simply had their stone needles and pointed instruments. With these they scratched or drew animals on the walls of caves. Some of their drawings are quite good but they are almost all profiles. You know that it is easier to draw profiles, and children usually draw in this way. As the caves must have been dark it is probable that they used some kind of simple lamp. These men that we have described are called Palaeolithic men, or the men of the old Stone Age.
That period is called the Stone Age because men made all their tools with stone. They did not know how to use the metals. Today most of your things are made of metals, specially iron. But iron or Cave painting bronze was not known then, and so stone, which is much more difficult to work with, was used.
Before the Stone Age came to an end the climate of the world changed greatly and became much warmer. The glaciers had gone far back to the Arctic Ocean, and in Central Asia and Europe great forests arose. Among these forests we find a new race of men living. These people were cleverer in many ways than the Palaeolithic men whom we have just described. But they still made their tools out of stone.
These men also belonged to the Stone Age but it was the later Stone Age. They are called Neolithic men or men of the new Stone Age.
We find when examining these Neolithic men that great progress has 25 been made. The intelligence of man is making him go ahead quite fast compared to the other animals. These Neolithic men made the very great discovery of cultivation.
They started tilling fields and growing their food there. This was a great thing for them. They could now get their food more easily instead of having to hunt animals all the time. They got more leisure, more time to rest and think. And the more leisure they had the more progress they made in discovering new things and methods. They started making earthen pots, and with the help of these they began to cook their food.
The stone 26 tools were much better and were beautifully polished. They also knew how to tame animals like the cow, the dog, the sheep, and the goat. They also knew how to weave.
They used to live in houses or huts. These huts were very often made in the middle of lakes as the wild animals or other men could not attack them easily there. These people are therefore called lake-dwellers. You will wonder how we know so much about these people. They wrote no books of course. But I have already told you that the book where we read the story of these men is the great book of nature.
It is not easy to read it. It requires great patience. Many people have spent their lives in trying to read this book and they have collected large numbers of fossils and other remains of old times. These fossils are collected together in the great museums and we can see there the fine polished axes and the pots and stone arrows and needles and many other things which were made by the Neolithic man.
You have seen many of these things yourself but perhaps you have forgotten them. If you see them again you will be able to understand them better. There was, I remember, a very good model of a lake-dwelling in the Geneva museum. Wooden poles were stuck in the lake and on top of these poles a wooden platform was made. On the platform the wooden huts were put up and the thing was connected by a little bridge to the land.
These Neolithic men clothed themselves with the skins of animals or sometimes with a rough cloth of flax. Flax is a plant which has a good fibre used for making cloth. Linen is now made out of flax.
But in those days cloth of flax must have been very rough. These men went on making progress. They started making tools of copper and of bronze. Bronze as you know is a mixture of copper and tin and is harder than either of these. They also used gold and were vain enough to make ornaments out of it! These people must have lived about 10, years ago. Of course we do not know the exact dates or periods.
All this is largely guess-work. You will notice that so far we have been talking of millions of years. We are now gradually getting nearer and nearer to our present age. From the Neolithic man to the man today there is no break or sudden change. But still we are very different from him. The changes came slowly, as is nature's way.
Different races developed and each race went its own way and lived its own life. The climate being different in different parts of the world people had to adapt themselves to it and changed greatly. But we shall talk about this later.
One thing more I want to tell you today. About the end of the Neolithic age a very great disaster happened to man. I have told you already that at 27 that time the Mediterranean was not a sea at all. There were just some lakes there and in these lakes many people lived. Suddenly the land near Gibraltar between Europe and Africa was washed away and the waters of the Atlantic Ocean poured into the low valley of the Mediterranean.
The water went on pouring and filling it up and large numbers of the men and women living near or over the lakes must have been drowned. They could not escape anywhere. There was water all over the place for hundreds of miles. The Atlantic Ocean continued to pour in till it had filled up the valley and the Mediterranean Sea came into existence.
You have heard, of course, and perhaps read, about the great flood. The Bible speaks about it and some of our Sanskrit books also refer to it. It may be that this mighty flood was the filling up of the Mediterranean. It was such a terrible disaster that the few people who managed to escape must have told all about it to their children, and their own children and so the story was handed down from generation to generation. We saw that they had made great progress in many ways.
They discovered agriculture and knew how to cook and to tame animals for their use. All this was many thousands of years ago and we do not know much about them. But probably most of the races of men we have in the world today have descended from these Neolithic people. We find now, as you know, white men and yellow men and brown and black. But as a matter of fact it is not easy to divide the races of men into these four divisions.
Races have got mixed up and it is difficult to say about many of them to which division they belong. Scientists measure the heads of people and by this measurement they can sometimes find out the race. There are other ways of finding this out also. How did these different races come into existence? If they are all descended from the same people, why do they differ so much from each other now?
You know that a German is very different from a Negro. One is fair 28 and the other is black. The hair of the German is light coloured and long, the Negro's hair is black and short and curly. The Chinaman again is different from both of these. It is difficult to say how these differences crept in, but we know some of the causes of these differences. I have already told you how animals gradually changed as they adapted themselves to their surroundings.
It may be that the German and the Negro are descended from different types of men but some time or other they must have had the same ancestor. The differences must therefore have come in by the process of adaptation to their surroundings, or it may have been that some, like some animals, could adapt themselves more easily than others. Thus a person living in the great cold and ice of the far north would develop the power to bear cold. The Eskimos even now live in the ice fields of the north and they can bear great cold.
They would probably die if you brought them to warm countries like ours. And as they are cut off from the rest of the world, and have to live a hard life, they have not learnt as many things as people in other parts of the world. The people in Africa or those living near the equator where it is very hot, get used to this heat.
And the great heat of the sun makes them dark in complexion. You know that if you spend much time in the sun at the seaside or elsewhere you become tanned, or browner and darker than you otherwise are.
If after a few weeks of sunbaths you become darker, how much darker would a man be who always has to live in this sun? And if for hundreds of years people live in very hot countries, fathers and their children and their children's children and so on, they will become darker and darker, till they become almost black.
You have seen the Indian peasant working in the fields in the midday sun. He is too poor to have many clothes and has little on. His whole body is exposed to the sun and all his life is spent in this way. He is bound to get dark. So we find that people's complexions are the result of the climate they live in. They have nothing to do with the worthiness or goodness or beauty of a person. A white person living long in a hot country will get dark unless of course he hides himself from the sun and the heat behind tattis and under fans.
You know we are Kashmiris and more than years ago our ancestors lived in Kashmir. In Kashmir you find everybody, including the peasants and labourers, very fair of complexion. That is because the climate of Kashmir is cold. But these very Kashmiris when they come down to other parts of India, which are hotter, become darker after some generations. Many of our Kashmiri friends are quite fair, others are quite dark. The longer a Kashmiri family has lived in this part of India, the darker it is likely to be.
Climate is thus the chief cause of colour and complexion.
Of course, it 29 may be that some people, even though they may live in a hot country, do not work in the open and are rich enough to live in big houses and take care of themselves and their complexions. A rich family may live like this for generations and may thus not be affected by the climate very much.
But not to work oneself and to live on the work of others is nothing to be proud of. In India you find that in the north, in Kashmir and the Punjab, people are usually fair. But as you go south they become darker.